The Associated Press (AP) is an American not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association, and produces news reports that are distributed to its members, major U.S. daily newspapers and radio and television broadcasters. Since the award was established in 1917, the AP has earned 58 Pulitzer Prizes, including 35 for photography. The AP is also known for its widely used AP Stylebook, its AP polls tracking NCAA sports, and its election polls and results during US elections.
|Founded||May 22, 1846|
|Revenue||US$510.135 million (2017)|
|US$-73.966 million (2017)|
Number of employees
By 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters, The AP operates 248 news bureaus in 99 countries, and publishes in English, Spanish, and Arabic. It also operates the AP Radio Network, which provides twice hourly newscasts and daily sportscasts for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative. As part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP traditionally employed the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing, a method that enables news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials, although in 2007, then-AP President Tom Curley called the practice "dead".
The Associated Press was formed in May 1846 by five daily newspapers in New York City to share the cost of transmitting news of the Mexican–American War. The venture was organized by Moses Yale Beach (1800–68), second publisher of The Sun, joined by the New York Herald, the New York Courier and Enquirer, The Journal of Commerce, and the New York Evening Express. Some historians believe that the New-York Tribune joined at this time; documents show it was a member in 1849. The New York Times became a member in September 1851.
Initially known as the New York Associated Press (NYAP), the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press (1862), which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. An investigation completed in 1892 by Victor Lawson, editor and publisher of the Chicago Daily News, revealed that several principals of the NYAP had entered into a secret agreement with United Press, a rival organization, to share NYAP news and the profits of reselling it. The revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, the Western Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois as the Associated Press. A 1900 Illinois Supreme Court decision (Inter Ocean Publishing Co. v. Associated Press) that the AP was a public utility and operating in restraint of trade resulted in the AP's move from Chicago to New York City, where corporation laws were more favorable to cooperatives.
Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP general manager from 1893 to 1921. The cooperative grew rapidly under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who served from 1925 to 1948 and who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and (after World War II), the Middle East. He introduced the "telegraph typewriter" or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914. In 1935, the AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken. This gave the AP a major advantage over other news media outlets. While the first network was only between New York, Chicago, and San Francisco, eventually the AP had its network across the whole United States.
In 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. United States that the AP had been violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by prohibiting member newspapers from selling or providing news to nonmember organizations as well as making it very difficult for nonmember newspapers to join the AP. The decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955.
The AP entered the broadcast field in 1941 when it began distributing news to radio stations; it created its own radio network in 1974. In 1994, it established APTV, a global video newsgathering agency. APTV merged with WorldWide Television News in 1998 to form APTN, which provides video to international broadcasters and websites. In 2004, the AP moved its headquarters from its long time home at 50 Rockefeller Plaza to 450 West 33rd Street in Manhattan. In 2019, AP had more than 240 bureaus globally. Its mission—"to gather with economy and efficiency an accurate and impartial report of the news"—has not changed since its founding, but digital technology has made the distribution of the AP news report an interactive endeavor between the AP and its 1,400 U.S. newspaper members as well as broadcasters, international subscribers, and online customers.
The AP began diversifying its news gathering capabilities and by 2007 the AP was generating only about 30% of its revenue from United States newspapers. 37% came from the global broadcast customers, 15% from online ventures and 18% came from international newspapers and from photography.
Web resources Edit
The AP's multi-topic structure has resulted in web portals such as Yahoo! and MSN posting its articles, often relying on the AP as their first source for news coverage of breaking news items. This and the constant updating evolving stories require has had a major impact on the AP's public image and role, giving new credence to the AP's ongoing mission of having staff for covering every area of news fully and promptly. In 2007, Google announced that it was paying to receive AP content, to be displayed in Google News, interrupted from late 2009 to mid-2010 due to a licensing dispute.
- 1849: The Harbor News Association opened the first news bureau outside the United States in Halifax, Nova Scotia, to meet ships sailing from Europe before they reached dock in New York.
- 1876: Mark Kellogg, a stringer, was the first AP news correspondent to be killed while reporting the news, at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
- 1893: Melville E. Stone became the general manager of the reorganized the AP, a post he held until 1921. Under his leadership, the AP grew to be one of the world's most prominent news agencies.
- 1899: The AP used Guglielmo Marconi's wireless telegraph to cover the America's Cup yacht race off Sandy Hook, New Jersey, the first news test of the new technology.
- 1914: The AP introduced the teleprinter, which transmitted directly to printers over telegraph wires. Eventually a worldwide network of 60-word-per-minute teleprinter machines is built.
- 1935: The AP initiated WirePhoto, the world's first wire service for photographs. The first photograph to transfer over the network depicted an airplane crash in Morehouse, New York, on New Year's Day, 1935.
- 1938: The AP expanded new offices at 50 Rockefeller Plaza (known as "50 Rock") under an agreement made as part of the construction of Rockefeller Center in New York City. The building would remain its headquarters for 66 years.
- 1941: The AP expanded from print to radio broadcast news.
- 1941: Wide World News Photo Service purchased from The New York Times.
- 1943: The AP sends Ruth Cowan Nash to cover the deployment of the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps to Algeria. Nash is the first American woman war correspondent.
- 1945: AP war correspondent Joseph Morton was executed along with nine OSS men and four British SOE agents by the Germans at Mauthausen concentration camp. Morton was the only Allied correspondent to be executed by the Axis during World War II. That same year, AP Paris bureau chief Edward Kennedy defied an Allied headquarters news blackout to report Nazi Germany's surrender, touching off a bitter episode that lead to his eventual dismissal by the AP. Kennedy maintains that he reported only what German radio already had broadcast.
- 1951: AP war correspondent Prague bureau chief William N. Oatis was arrested for espionage by the Communist government of Czechoslovakia. He was not released until 1953.
- 1974: The AP launches the Associated Press Radio Network headquartered in Washington, D.C.
- 1994: The AP launches APTV, a global video news gathering agency, headquartered in London.
- 2004: The AP moves its headquarters from 50 Rock to 450 West 33rd Street, New York City.
- 2006: The AP joins YouTube.
- 2008: The AP launched AP Mobile (initially known as the AP Mobile News Network), a multimedia news portal that gives users news they can choose and provides anytime access to international, national and local news. The AP was the first to debut a dedicated iPhone application in June 2008 on stage at Apple's WWDC event. The app offered AP's own worldwide coverage of breaking news, sports, entertainment, politics and business as well as content from more than 1,000 AP members and third-party sources.
- 2008: The AP opens its Pyongyang bureau.
- 2010: The AP launched multi-device World Cup Soccer Applications providing real-time news coverage of the 2010 World Cup on desktop, Apple and Android devices.
- 2010: AP earnings fall 65% from 2008 to just $8.8 million. The AP also announced that it would have posted a loss of $4.4 million had it not liquidated its German-language news service for $13.2 million.
- 2011: AP revenue dropped $14.7 million in 2010. 2010 revenue totaled $631 million, a decline of 7% from the previous year. The AP rolled out price cuts designed to help newspapers and broadcasters cope with declining revenue.
- 2012: Gary B. Pruitt succeeded Tom Curley to become president and CEO. Pruitt is the 13th leader of the AP in its 166-year history.
- 2016: The AP Reports that income dropped to $1.6 million from $183.6 million in 2015. The 2015 profit figure was bolstered by a one-time, $165 million tax benefit.
- 2017: The AP moved its headquarters to 200 Liberty Street, New York City.
- 2018: The AP unveiled AP Votecast to replace exit polls for the 2018 US midterm elections.
Election polls Edit
The AP is the only organization that collects and verifies election results in every city and county across the United States, including races for the U.S. president, the Senate and House of Representatives, governor as well as other statewide offices. Major news outlets rely on the polling data and results provided by the Associated Press before declaring a winner in major political races, particularly the presidential election. In declaring the winners, the AP has historically relied on a robust network of local reporters with first-hand knowledge of assigned territories who also have long-standing relationships with county clerks as well as other local officials. Moreover, the AP monitors and gathers data from county websites and electronic feeds provided by states. The research team further verifies the results by considering demographics, number of absentee ballots, and other political issues that may have an effect on the final results. In 2018, the AP has introduced a new system called AP VoteCast, which was developed together with NORC at the University of Chicago in order to further improve the reliability of its data and overcome biases of its legacy exit poll.
Recognized for its integrity and accuracy, the organization has collected and published presidential election data since 1848. During the 2016 election, the AP was 100% accurate in calling the president and congressional races in every state.
Sports polls Edit
The AP conducts polls for numerous college sports in the United States. The AP college football rankings were created in 1936, and began including the top 25 teams in 1989. Since 1969, the final poll of each season has been released after all bowl games have been played. The AP released its all-time Top 25 in 2016. As of 2017[update], 22 different programs had finished in the number one spot of the poll since its inception. In the pre-bowl game determination era, the AP poll was often used as the distinction for a national champion in football.
The AP college basketball poll has been used as a guide for which teams deserve national attention. The AP first began its poll of college basketball teams in 1949, and has since conducted over 1,100 polls. The college basketball poll started with 20 teams and was reduced to 10 during the 1960-61 college basketball season. It returned to 20 teams in 1968-69 and expanded to 25 beginning in 1989–90. The final poll for each season is released prior to the conclusion of the NCAA tournament, so all data includes regular season games only. In 2017, The AP released a list of the Top 100 teams of all time. The poll counted poll appearances (one point) and No. 1 rankings (two points) to rank each team.
Sports awards Edit
The AP began its Major League Baseball Manager of the Year Award in 1959, for a manager in each league. From 1984 to 2000, the award was given to one manager in all of MLB. The winners were chosen by a national panel of AP baseball writers and radio men. The award was discontinued in 2001.
Every year, the AP releases the names of the winners of its AP College Basketball Player of the Year and AP College Basketball Coach of the Year awards. It also honors a group of All-American players.
Associated Press Television News Edit
In 1994, London-based Associated Press Television (APTV) was founded to provide agency news material to television broadcasters. In 1998, the AP purchased Worldwide Television News (WTN) from the ABC News division of The Walt Disney Company, Nine Network Australia and ITN London. The AP publishes 70,000 videos and 6,000 hours of live video per year, as of 2016[update]. The agency also provides five simultaneous live video channels, AP Direct via satellite for broadcasters, and four live channels on AP Live Choice for digital publishers. The AP was the first news agency to launch a live video news service in 2003.
AP Stylebook Edit
The Associated Press Stylebook (generally called the AP Stylebook), alternatively titled The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law, is a style and usage guide for American English grammar created by American journalists working for or connected with the Associated Press journalism cooperative based in New York City. The Stylebook offers a basic reference to American English grammar, punctuation, and principles of reporting, including many definitions and rules for usage as well as styles for capitalization, abbreviation, spelling, and numerals.
The first publicly available edition of the book was published in 1953. The first modern edition was published in August 1977 by Lorenz Press. Afterwards, various paperback editions were published by different publishers including, among others, Turtleback Books, Penguin's Laurel Press, Pearson's Addison-Wesley, and Hachette's Perseus Books and Basic Books. Recent editions are released in several formats, including paperback and flat-lying spiral-bound editions, as well as a digital e-book edition and an online subscription version. Additionally, the AP Stylebook also provides English grammar recommendations through social media, including Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest, and Instagram.From 1977 to 2005, more than two million copies of the AP Stylebook have been sold worldwide, with that number climbing to 2.5 million by 2011. Writers in broadcasting, news, magazine publishing, marketing departments and public relations firms traditionally adopt and apply AP grammar and punctuation styles.
Litigation and controversies Edit
Kidnapping of Tina Susman Edit
In 1994, Tina Susman was on her fourth trip to Somalia, reporting for the AP. She was reporting on U.S. peacekeeping troops leaving the country. Somali rebels outnumbered her bodyguards in Mogadishu, dragged her from her car in broad daylight, and held her for 20 days. She told The Quill that she believes being a woman was an advantage in her experience there. The AP had requested news organizations including The New York Times, the Chicago Tribune, and The Washington Post to suppress the story to discourage the emboldening of the kidnappers.
Christopher Newton Edit
In September 2002, Washington, D.C. bureau reporter Christopher Newton, an AP reporter since 1994, was fired after he was accused of fabricating sources since 2000, including at least 40 people and organizations. Prior to his firing, Newton had been focused on writing about federal law-enforcement while based at the Justice Department. Some of the nonexistent agencies quoted in his stories included "Education Alliance", the "Institute for Crime and Punishment in Chicago", "Voice for the Disabled", and "People for Civil Rights".
FBI impersonation case Edit
In 2007, an FBI agent working in Seattle impersonated an AP journalist and infected the computer of a 15-year old suspect with a malicious surveillance software. The incident sparked a strongly worded statement from the AP demanding the bureau never impersonate a member of the news media again. In September 2016 the incident resulted in a report by the Justice Department, which the AP said "effectively condone[d] the FBI's impersonation".
Fair-use controversy Edit
In June 2008, the AP sent numerous DMCA take down demands and threatened legal action against several blogs. The AP contended that the internet blogs were violating the AP's copyright by linking to AP material and using headlines and short summaries in those links. Many bloggers and experts noted that the use of the AP news fell squarely under commonly accepted internet practices and within fair-use standards. Others noted and demonstrated that the AP routinely takes similar excerpts from other sources, often without attribution or licenses. The AP responded that it was defining standards regarding citations of AP news.
Shepard Fairey Edit
In March 2009, the AP counter-sued artist Shepard Fairey over his famous image of Barack Obama, saying the uncredited, uncompensated use of an AP photo violated copyright laws and signaled a threat to journalism. Fairey had sued the AP the previous month over his artwork, titled "Obama Hope" and "Obama Progress", arguing that he did not violate copyright law because he dramatically changed the image. The artwork, based on an April 2006 picture taken for the AP by Mannie Garcia, was a popular image during the 2008 presidential election and now hangs in the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C. According to the AP lawsuit filed in federal court in Manhattan, Fairey knowingly "misappropriated The AP's rights in that image". The suit asked the court to award the AP profits made off the image and damages. Fairey said he looked forward to "upholding the free expression rights at stake here" and disproving the AP's accusations. In January 2011 this suit was settled with neither side declaring their position to be wrong but agreeing to share reproduction rights and profits from Fairey's work.
Hot News Edit
In January 2008, the AP sued competitor All Headline News (AHN) claiming that AHN allegedly infringed on its copyrights and a contentious "quasi-property" right to facts. The AP complaint asserted that AHN reporters had copied facts from AP news reports without permission and without paying a syndication fee. After AHN moved to dismiss all but the copyright claims set forth by the AP, a majority of the lawsuit was dismissed. The case has been dismissed and both parties settled.
Hoax tweet and flash crash Edit
On April 23, 2013, hackers posted a tweet to AP's Twitter account about fictional attacks on the White House, falsely claiming that President Obama had been injured. The hoax caused a flash crash on the American stock markets, with the Dow Jones index briefly falling by 143 points.
Justice Department subpoena of phone records Edit
On May 13, 2013, the AP announced telephone records for 20 of their reporters during a two-month period in 2012, had been subpoenaed by the U.S. Justice Department and described these acts as a "massive and unprecedented intrusion" into news-gathering operations. The AP reported that the Justice Department would not say why it sought the records, but sources stated that the United States Attorney for the District of Columbia's office was conducting a criminal investigation into a May 7, 2012 AP story about a CIA operation that prevented a terrorist plot to detonate an explosive device on a commercial flight. The DOJ did not direct subpoenas to the AP, instead going to their phone providers, including Verizon Wireless. U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder testified under oath in front of the House Judiciary Committee that he recused himself from the leak investigations to avoid any appearance of a conflict of interest. Holder said his Deputy Attorney General, James M. Cole, was in charge of the AP investigation and would have ordered the subpoenas.
AP collaboration with Nazi Germany Edit
The AP remained in Nazi Germany despite intense pressures, working to gather the news from 1933 to 1941, when the news organization was expelled from the country. AP Bureau Chief Louis Lochner earned the 1939 Pulitzer Prize for his dispatches from Berlin. After being expelled from Germany, AP worked with a Waffen SS photographer who had taken over AP's former German photo service to obtain photos from areas under Nazi control. This relationship involved the Bureau Laux, run by the Waffen-SS photographer Helmut Laux.
The mechanism for this interchange was that a courier flew to Lisbon and back each day transporting photos from and for Nazi Germany's wartime enemy, the United States, via diplomatic pouch. The transactions were initially conducted at the AP bureau under Luiz Lupi in Lisbon, and from 1944, when the exchange via Lisbon took too long, also at the AP bureau in Stockholm under Eddie Shanke. Here, as a cover, the Swedish agency, Pressens Bild, was involved as an intermediary. An estimated 40,000 photos were exchanged between the enemies in this way. AP distributed some of the images it received to customers, writing in the captions that the images originated from Nazi Germany. The exchange of photos was sanctioned by the U.S. government. The AP was kicked out of Nazi Germany when the United States entered World War II in December 1941.
Israeli–Palestinian conflict Edit
In his book Broken Spring: An American-Israeli Reporter's Close-up View of How Egyptians Lost Their Struggle for Freedom, former AP correspondent Mark Lavie claimed that the editorial line of the Cairo bureau was that the conflict was Israel's fault and the Arabs and Palestinians were blameless. Israeli journalist Matti Friedman accused the AP of killing a story he wrote about the "war of words", "between Israel and its critics in human rights organizations", in the aftermath of the Israel/Gaza conflict of 2008–09.
Tuvia Grossman photograph Edit
On September 29, 2000, the first day of the Second Intifada, the AP sent out of a photograph of a badly bloodied young man behind whom a police officer could be seen with a baton raised in a menacing fashion; a gas station with Hebrew lettering could also be seen in the background. The AP labelled it with the caption "An Israeli policeman and a Palestinian on the Temple Mount", and the picture and caption were subsequently published in several major American newspapers, including the New York Times and the Boston Globe. In reality, the injured man in the photograph was a Jewish yeshiva student from Chicago named Tuvia Grossman, and the police officer, a Druze named Gidon Tzefadi, was protecting Grossman from a Palestinian mob who had clubbed, stoned, and stabbed Grossman. There are also no gas stations with Hebrew lettering on the Temple Mount.
The episode is often cited by those who accuse the media of having an anti-Israel bias, and was the impetus for the founding of HonestReporting. After a letter from Grossman's father noted the error, the AP, the New York Times, and other papers published corrections; despite these corrections, the photograph continues to be used by critics of Israel as a symbol of Israeli aggression and violence.
Israeli airstrike on the AP office building Edit
During the 2021 Israel–Palestine crisis, the Israeli army destroyed the al-Jalaa Highrise, a building housing the AP's Gaza offices and Al Jazeera offices. Israel stated that the building housed Hamas military intelligence and had given advanced warning of the strike, and no civilians were harmed. AP CEO Gary Pruitt released a statement on May 16, stating that he "had no indication Hamas was in the building" and called on the Israeli government to provide the evidence. He said that "the world will know less about what is happening in Gaza because of what happened today."
On 17 May, US secretary of state Antony Blinken said he had not seen any evidence that Hamas operated from the building housing the AP and Al Jazeera, but it is the job of others to handle intelligence matters. Israel reportedly shared intelligence with American officials and U.S. president Joe Biden showing Hamas offices inside the building. Journalist Matti Friedman also supported the Israeli government's claim.
On June 8, Israeli Ambassador to the US Gilad Erdan met with AP CEO Gary Pruitt and vice president for foreign news, Ian Phillips, to discuss the operation. In coordination with the IDF, Erdan said the site was used by Hamas intelligence officials to develop and carry out SIGINT and electronic warfare operations, targeting both IDF and civilian systems in Israel, including devices to disrupt the Iron Dome. Erdan also said the Israeli government does not believe the AP was aware of the Hamas presence because it was a secret unit. He said the Israeli government was willing to help rebuild the AP's offices and ensure they will be able to bring equipment into Gaza.
Firing of Emily Wilder Edit
In May 2021, the AP said it would launch a review of its social media policies after questions were raised about the firing of a journalist who expressed pro-Palestinian views on social media. The announcement came after some AP journalists signed a letter expressing concern over the termination of former news associate Emily Wilder, whom the AP said committed multiple violations of the company's social media policy. Wilder was the target of a right-wing online harassment campaign for her activism while at Stanford University. The AP has said that Wilder's previous activism played no role in her termination.
Migrant Boat NFT Edit
On January 10, 2022, AP announced it would start selling non-fungible tokens (NFTs) of their photographs in partnership with a company named Xooa, with the proceeds being used to fund their operations. One of the NFTs they promoted on Twitter on 24 February was an aerial shot depicting an overcrowded migrant boat in the Mediterranean Sea. The tweet received negative backlash from users and other journalists, with AP being accused of profiting off of human suffering and the picture choice being "dystopian" and "in extremely poor taste". The tweet was subsequently deleted and the NFT, which was to be sold the next day, was pulled from market. Global director of media relations Lauren Easton apologized, saying "This was a poor choice of imagery for an NFT. It has not and will not be put up for auction [...] AP's NFT marketplace is a very early pilot program, and we are immediately reviewing our efforts".
Awards received Edit
The AP has earned 58 Pulitzer Prizes, including 35 for photography, since the award was established in 1917. In May 2020, Dar Yasin, Mukhtar Khan, and Channi Anand of the AP were honored with the 2020 Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography. The choice caused controversy, because it was taken by some as questioning "India's legitimacy over Kashmir" as it had used the word "independence" in regard to revocation of Article 370.
See also Edit
- "Leadership Team". Associated Press. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
- "Documents Shed New Light on Birth of AP; Wire Older Than Originally Thought". Editor & Publisher. January 31, 2006. Archived from the original on July 28, 2018. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
- "Consolidated Financial Statements" (PDF). Associated Press. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 15, 2016. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- "2016 Consolidated Financial Statements" (PDF). Associated Press. April 5, 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2018. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
- "AP by the numbers". Associated Press. Associated Press. 2019. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
- "Associated Press CEO: "The Inverted Pyramid Is Dead"". Adweek. November 2, 2007. Archived from the original on October 22, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2020.
- "Associated Press Founded - This Day in History May 22". New York Natives. May 22, 2015. Archived from the original on March 24, 2016. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
- "Network effects". The Economist. Archived from the original on February 21, 2018. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
- Beach, Stanley, Archives at Yale, Stanley Yale Beach papers Archived March 31, 2023, at the Wayback Machine, Number: GEN MSS 802, 1911-1948
- Press, Gil. "The Birth of Atari, Modern Computer Design, And The Software Industry: This Week In Tech History". Forbes. Archived from the original on February 21, 2018. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
- Schwarzlose, Richard Allen (1989). The Nation's Newsbrokers: The formative years, from pretelegraphs to 1865. Northwestern University Press. p. 93. ISBN 9780810108189. Archived from the original on January 4, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
- Palmer, Michael B. (2019). International News Agencies: A History. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 69. ISBN 9783030311773. Archived from the original on March 26, 2023. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- "Wire That Photo". Popular Mechanics. July 1937. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
- "Associated PRess v. United States, 326 U.S. 1 (1945)". Justia. 1945. Archived from the original on May 5, 2022. Retrieved October 2, 2022.
- Vile, John R. "Associated Press v. United States (1945)". The First Amendment Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on May 26, 2022. Retrieved October 2, 2022.
- Hau, Louis (February 14, 2008). "Down On The Wire". Forbes. Archived from the original on March 31, 2009. Retrieved April 9, 2009.
Last year, AP generated only about 30% of its revenue from U.S. newspapers. The rest came from global broadcast customers (37%), online ventures (15%) and other revenue sources, such as international clients and photography, (18%). Forbes.com is a customer of AP
- "Google News Becomes A Publisher". Information Week. August 31, 2007. Archived from the original on June 27, 2008. Retrieved April 26, 2008.
'Because the Associated Press, Agence France-Presse, U.K. Press Association and the Canadian Press don't have a consumer Web site where they publish their content, they have not been able to benefit from the traffic that Google News drives to other publishers,' Josh Cohen, business product manager for Google News, explained in a blog post.
- "Google Stops Hosting New AP Content". Archived from the original on January 12, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
- "Google, AP reach deal for Google News content". CNET. August 30, 2010. Archived from the original on January 2, 2014. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- "AP content drives more Facebook engagements than individual publishers in June, July" (Press release). Associated Press. Archived from the original on April 7, 2018. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- "AP leaves 50 Rock for West 33rd Street Headquarters" (Press release). Associated Press. July 19, 2004. Archived from the original on April 27, 2009. Retrieved November 17, 2009.
- Rachel L. Swarns, Darcy Eveleigh and Damien Cave (February 1, 2016). "Unpublished Black History". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 1, 2016. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
The Times's picture agency, Wide World News Photo Service, which had staff members in London, Berlin and elsewhere, was sold to The Associated Press in 1941.
- "WIDE WORLD, INC., SOLD TO THE A.P.; News Photo Service in Western Hemisphere Will Be Turned Over to New Owners Friday COOPER TELLS OF PLANS Purchase in Line With Policy of Accelerating Collection and Output of Pictures". The New York Times. Associated Press. July 26, 1941. Archived from the original on April 30, 2023. Retrieved April 30, 2023.
- "Go to War I Did, and at Considerable Trouble" Archived July 26, 2020, at the Wayback Machine Ramirez, Maria. Nieman Reports, Nieman Foundation at Harvard.
- Associated Press (2009-05-21). "AP Mobile rings in one-year anniversary" Archived February 19, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, AP, Press Release.
- "Jean H. Lee". Wilson Center. Archived from the original on November 13, 2021. Retrieved November 13, 2021.
- "Associated Press Reports Narrow 2009 Profit". Media Post. April 30, 2010. Archived from the original on May 4, 2010. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- "AP loses $14.7M in 2010 as revenue falls 7 percent". The Seattle Times. April 14, 2011. Archived from the original on February 26, 2021. Retrieved January 13, 2021.
- "Gary Pruitt, of McClatchy, to become new president and CEO of The Associated Press". Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 14, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- "Newspaper decline continues to weigh on AP earnings". Associated Press. Associated Press. Archived from the original on July 18, 2018. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
- Easton, Lauren. "AP VoteCast debuts Tuesday". Associated Press Blog. Archived from the original on November 9, 2018. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
- "Facts & Figures: AP Board of Directors". Associated Press. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2009.
- "Understanding the Election". Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 23, 2021. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
- Sadler, Megan (November 10, 2020). "How the Associated Press calls election races and ensures vote count accuracy". WVLT-TV. Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 10, 2020. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
- "AP VoteCast". Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 23, 2021. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
- Storey, Kate (October 29, 2020). "How the Associated Press Plans to Determine the Winner of This Year's Election". Esquire. Archived from the original on November 30, 2020. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
- "The best and worst of LSU's AP preseason poll history". NOLA.com. Archived from the original on July 20, 2018. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
- Williams, Blake. "What The Last Five Seasons Of The AP Poll Say About Trending Teams In College Football". Forbes. Archived from the original on July 20, 2018. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
- "College football rankings: Who has been No. 1 in the AP preseason poll most often and how did they finish?". NCAA. August 21, 2017. Archived from the original on July 20, 2018. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
- "AP Top 25 polls highlight Top 100 all-time in college basketball". The Denver Post. March 29, 2017. Archived from the original on July 20, 2018. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
- AP Manager of the Year Award Archived February 1, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Baseball-Almanac.com. Retrieved 2009-09-29. Although the award began in 1959, AP gave a "manager of the year" award in 1950 to Eddie Sawyer of the Philadelphia Phillies."Eddie Sawyer Honored in Baseball Vote". Prescott Evening Courier. November 8, 1950. p. Section 2, Page 1. Archived from the original on February 27, 2021. Retrieved September 16, 2010.
- In 1959, when the AP began its Manager of the Year Award for a manager in each league, The Sporting News Manager of the Year Award (begun in 1936) was for one manager in all of MLB. In 1983, MLB began its own Manager of the Year Award, for a manager in each league. The following year (1984) the AP changed its award to one in all of MLB. In 1986, The Sporting News changed its award to one for each league.
- "A.P. Buys Worldwide Television News". The New York Times. Reuters. June 3, 1998. Archived from the original on July 9, 2018. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
- "A.P. Buys Worldwide Television News". The New York Times. June 3, 1998. Archived from the original on July 9, 2018. Retrieved January 13, 2021.
- "AP experiments with live streams as appetite for up-to-the-minute video grows". January 13, 2016. Archived from the original on July 20, 2018. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- "AP Stylebook (APStylebook) on Twitter". Twitter.com. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
- "AP Stylebook". Facebook. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- "AP Stylebook". Pinterest. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- "AP Stylebook". Instagram. Retrieved June 9, 2021.
- Cotter, Colleen (September 4, 2014). "Revisiting the "journalist's bible": How news practitioners respond to language and social change". In Androutsopoulos, Jannis (ed.). Mediatization and Sociolinguistic Change. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. pp. 371–394. ISBN 978-3-11-034683-1.
- "2005 Edition of AP Stylebook now available". AP.org. Associated Press. April 2005. Archived from the original on January 19, 2011. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
- Burford, Michelle (July 2002). "Adventurous Thinkers". O, The Oprah Magazine. Archived from the original on February 3, 2020. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
- Callahan, Christopher (September 1994). "When a Journalist is Kidnapped". Philip Merrill College of Journalism.
- Dietrich, Heidi (November 20, 2002). "Women in War Zones". The Quill. Archived from the original on February 4, 2020. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
- Glaberson, William (August 8, 1994). "In Somalia, 20 days of terror and a lesson for journalists". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 21, 2020. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
- "Fib Newton". Slate.com. October 29, 2002. Archived from the original on May 8, 2008. Retrieved April 16, 2008.
- Miller, Mary Ann (August 27, 2015). "Associated Press sues after FBI impersonates journalist in sting operation". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 24, 2017.
- Reilly, Ryan (September 15, 2016). "An FBI Agent Did A Pretty Terrible Job Of Pretending To Be A Journalist". HuffPost. Archived from the original on March 6, 2018.
- Tucker, Eric (November 10, 2014). "AP demands FBI never again impersonate journalist". Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 24, 2017.
- Colford, Paul (September 15, 2016). "AP statement on inspector general report". Associated Press - Blog. Archived from the original on May 15, 2021. Retrieved May 15, 2021.
- Wemple, Erik (September 15, 2016). "Justice Department report 'effectively condone[s]' FBI impersonation incident". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 24, 2017.
- Cohen, Kelly (December 15, 2017). "Appeals Court sides with Associated Press in lawsuit against FBI". Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on December 24, 2017.
- Gresko, Jessica (November 15, 2017). "US court hears case involving impersonation of AP journalist". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on December 24, 2017. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- "AP's Fair Use Challenge (Harvard Law)". Berkman Center for Internet and Society. June 17, 2008. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
- Hansell, Saul (June 16, 2008). "The Associated Press to Set Guidelines for Using Its Articles in Blogs". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 9, 2009. Retrieved April 9, 2009.
The Associated Press...said that it will, for the first time, attempt to define clear standards as to how much of its articles and broadcasts bloggers and Web sites can excerpt without infringing on The A.P.'s copyright.
- Memmott, Mark (January 11, 2011). "Shepard Fairey And AP Settle Copyright Dispute Over 'Hope' Poster". NPR. Archived from the original on June 23, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
- Schonfeld, Erick (February 22, 2009). "Hot News: The AP Is Living In The Last Century". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- Anderson, Nate. "Who owns the facts? The AP and the "hot news" controversy". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on December 31, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- The Associated Press v. All Headline News Corp., 08 Civ. 323 (United States District Court, Southern District of New York February 17, 2009).
- "Citizen Media Law Project" (PDF). Retrieved June 4, 2014.
- "AP Twitter account hacked in fake 'White House blasts' post". BBC News. April 23, 2013. Retrieved August 19, 2023.
- Moore, Heidi; Roberts, Dan (April 23, 2013). "AP Twitter hack causes panic on Wall Street and sends Dow plunging". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved August 19, 2023.
- Sanchez, Raf (May 13, 2013). "US Justice Department secretly seizes Associated Press phone records". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on May 14, 2013. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- "US government secretly obtained Associated Press phone records". The Guardian. May 15, 2013. Archived from the original on September 27, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
- Ingram, David (May 13, 2013). "Associated Press says U.S. government seized journalists' phone records". Reuters Canada. Archived from the original on May 29, 2014. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- Gallagher, Ryan. "Verizon Wireless Secretly Passed AP Reporters' Phone Records to Feds". Slate. Archived from the original on May 19, 2013. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- Curry, Tom. "Holder addresses AP leaks investigation, announces IRS probe". NBC News. Archived from the original on June 8, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
- The Pulitzer Prizes. "Louis P. Lochner of Associated Press". www.pulitzer.org. Archived from the original on June 7, 2023. Retrieved June 6, 2023.
- "Harriet Scharnberg, THE A AND P OF PROPAGANDA, Associated Press and Nazi Photojournalism" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on October 20, 2022. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
- Heinzerling, Larry (May 10, 2017). "Covering Tyranny: The AP and Nazi Germany 1933-1945" (PDF). AP review of Germany operations. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 20, 2023. Retrieved June 6, 2023.
- Rosenwald, Michael S. (May 10, 2017). "The secret deal the Associated Press made with the Nazis during WWII". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. ISSN 0190-8286. OCLC 2269358. Archived from the original on December 30, 2022. Retrieved May 19, 2023.
- Crary, David (May 10, 2017). "AP releases in-depth review of its coverage of Nazi Germany". Associated Press. Archived from the original on July 13, 2021. Retrieved July 13, 2021.
With the U.S. entry into the war against Germany in December 1941, AP's American staff members were arrested and interned for five months before being deported in a prisoner exchange. The AP German picture service was seized, handed over to the German Foreign Ministry and put under control of a Waffen-SS photographer, Helmut Laux. Most German former AP personnel were forced into Laux's operation; others were sent to military units.
- Norman Domeier (2017). "GEHEIME FOTOS - Die Kooperation von Associated Press und NS-Regime (1942–1945)" [Secret Photos. The Cooperation between Associated Press (AP) and Nazi Germany 1942–1945]. Zeithistorische Forschungen/Studies in Contemporary History 14. Archived from the original on May 15, 2020. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
- Friedman, Matti (November 30, 2014). "What the Media Gets Wrong About Israel". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on December 10, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
- "Broken Spring by Mark Lavie". Times of Israel. September 15, 2014. Archived from the original on December 15, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
- Lavie, Mark (August 2014). "Why Everything Reported from Gaza is Crazy Twisted". The Tower. Archived from the original on December 10, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
- "The pictures that are worth more than 1000 words". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on September 30, 2021. Retrieved September 30, 2021.
- "This Week in Israeli History: Tuvia Grossman – The Bloodied "Palestinian," Bar Giora and Menachem Ussishkin". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on September 30, 2021. Retrieved September 30, 2021.
- Markl, Florian (2021). "'Israel Threatens to Defend Itself': The Depiction of Israel in the Media". In Confronting Antisemitism through the Ages: A Historical Perspective (eds. Armin Lange, Kerstin Mayerhofer, Dina Porat, Lawrence H. Schiffman, Florian Markl). Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 473–474.
- Beeson, Patrick (2007). "Photojournalism." In "Media Bias: Finding It, Fixing It.". McFarland & Co. pp. 184, 190.
- "Carnage for the Cameras". The Wall Street Journal. October 6, 2000. Archived from the original on September 30, 2021. Retrieved September 30, 2021.
- Koltermann, Felix (2017). Fotoreporter im Konflikt: Der internationale Fotojournalismus in Israel/Palästina. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag. pp. 25 n.3.
- "The Photo that Started it All". Honest Reporting. Archived from the original on October 3, 2021. Retrieved September 30, 2021.
- "Nyt & Israel". National Review. March 14, 2003. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
- "Israel Says Gaza Tower That Housed AP Was Also Hamas Electronic Warfare Site". Bloomberg. June 8, 2021. Archived from the original on March 19, 2022. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
- "AP's top editor wants investigation into Israeli bombing of its Gaza office". Reuters. May 16, 2021. Archived from the original on August 7, 2021.
- "Statement: AP 'horrified' by Israeli attack on its office". Associated Press. May 16, 2021. Archived from the original on May 16, 2021. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- "Israel showed US 'smoking gun' on Hamas in AP office tower, officials say". Jerusalem Post. May 17, 2021. Archived from the original on May 26, 2021. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
- Alexandra Ma; Sinéad Baker (May 17, 2021). "A former Associated Press editor suggested that Hamas did have offices in the agency's Gaza City building, which Israel destroyed over the weekend". Business Insider. Archived from the original on June 12, 2022. Retrieved June 11, 2022.
- "Blinken hasn't seen any evidence on AP Gaza building strike". AP NEWS. May 17, 2021. Archived from the original on May 27, 2021. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
- "Blinken hasn't seen any evidence on AP Gaza building strike". Jerusalem Post. June 9, 2021. Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
- Fung, Katherine (June 8, 2021). "Israel offers to help rebuild Associated Press building destroyed in Gaza bombing". Newsweek. Archived from the original on June 11, 2022. Retrieved June 12, 2022.
- AP vice president speaks out on Emily Wilder firing, CNN Reliable Sources, May 30, 2021, archived from the original on March 28, 2022, retrieved June 12, 2022
- Clark, Mitchell (January 10, 2022). "The Associated Press is starting its own NFT marketplace for photojournalism". The Verge. Archived from the original on March 4, 2022. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
- Bissada, Masoj (February 25, 2022). "AP Cancels Sale Of NFT Of Migrants Floating In Overcrowded Boat In Mediterranean". Forbes. Archived from the original on March 3, 2022. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
- Cantor, Matthew (February 24, 2022). "'Profiting off suffering': AP cancels sale of migrant boat NFT amid backlash". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 4, 2022. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
- "Pulitzer Prizes won by the AP". Associated Press. Archived from the original on March 2, 2021. Retrieved December 26, 2022.
- "AP's Kashmir photographers win Pulitzer for lockdown coverage". Al Jazeera English. May 5, 2020. Archived from the original on May 5, 2020. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
- Hussain, Ashiq (May 6, 2020). "3 Indian photojournalists from Jammu and Kashmir win Pulitzer Prize". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on May 7, 2020. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
- "Kashmiri Pulitzer Prize winners caught in political debate". Outlook. May 5, 2020. Archived from the original on September 19, 2020. Retrieved May 6, 2020 – via Indo-Asian News Service (IANS).
- "Pulitzer Prize questions India's legitimacy over Kashmir". National Herald. May 5, 2020. Archived from the original on May 7, 2020. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
- "Pulitzer Prize questions India's legitimacy over Kashmir (Ld)". Outlook. May 5, 2020. Archived from the original on May 10, 2020. Retrieved May 6, 2020 – via (IANS).
- Breaking News: How the Associated Press Has Covered War, Peace and Everything Else. New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press. Associated Press. 2007. ISBN 978-1-56898-689-0.
- Fenby, Jonathan (1986). The International News Services. New York, NY: Schocken Books. ISBN 0-8052-3995-2.
- Schwarzlose, Richard Allen (1979). The American Wire Services: A Study of Their Development as a Social Institution. New York, NY: Arno Press. ISBN 0-405-11774-4.
- Schwarzlose, Richard Allen (1989). The Nation's Newsbrokers, Volume 1: The Formative Years: From Pretelegraph to 1865. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. ISBN 0-8101-0818-6.
- Schwarzlose, Richard Allen (1990). The Nation's Newsbrokers. Vol. 2: The Rush to Institution: From 1865 to 1920. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. ISBN 0-8101-0819-4.
- Silberstein-Loeb, Jonathan (2014). The International Distribution of News: The Associated Press, Press Association, and Reuters, 1848–1947.
Further reading Edit
- Blanchard, Margaret A. "The Associated Press antitrust suit: A philosophical clash over ownership of first amendment rights." Business History Review 61.1 (1987): 43–85.
- Blondheim, Menahem. News over the Wires: The Telegraph and the Flow of Public Information in America, 1844-1897 (Harvard U. Press, 1994).
- Blondheim, Menahem. "The click: Telegraphic technology, journalism, and the transformations of the New York Associated Press." American Journalism 17.4 (2000): 27–52.
- Coopersmith, Jonathan. "From lemons to lemonade: The development of AP Wirephoto." American Journalism 17.4 (2000): 55–72.
- Dell'Orto, Giovanna. AP foreign correspondents in action: World War II to the present (Cambridge University Press, 2016) online.
- Halberstam, David. Breaking news: how the Associated Press has covered war, peace, and everything else (Princeton Architectural Press, 2007) online.
- Kirat, Mohamed, and David Weaver. "Foreign news coverage in three wire services: A study of AP, UPI, and the nonaligned news agencies pool." Gazette (Leiden, Netherlands) 35.1 (1985): 31–47.
- Rantanen, Terhi. "Foreign dependence and domestic monopoly: The European news cartel and US associated presses, 1861–1932." Media History 12.1 (2006): 19–35.
- Renaud, Jean-Luc. "US government assistance to AP's world-wide expansion." Journalism Quarterly 62.1 (1985): 10–36.
- Seo, Soomin. "Blue-Collar witnesses to power: The culture of photographers at the Associated Press." Journalism Studies 20.15 (2019): 2200–2217. online
- Smethers, J. Steven. "Pounding Brass for the Associated Press: Delivering News by Telegraph in a Pre-Teletype Era." American Journalism 19.2 (2002): 13–30.
- Watts, Liz. "AP's first female reporters." Journalism History 39.1 (2013): 15–28. online