Ronald McDonald is a clown character used as the primary mascot of the McDonald's fast-food restaurant chain. In television commercials, he inhabited a fantasy world, McDonaldland, where he had adventures with his friends Mayor McCheese, the Hamburglar, Grimace, Birdie the Early Bird and The Fry Kids. By 2003, the McDonaldland world was dropped from McDonald's advertising, but Ronald continued to appear.
|Portrayed by||Willard Scott (1963–1965)|
Michael Polakovs (1965–1968)
Ray Rayner (1968–1969)
King Moody (1969–1985)
Squire Fridell (1985–1991)
Jack Doepke (1991–1999)
David Hussey (2000–2014)
Brad Lennon (2014–present)
|Voiced by||Squire Fridell (Ronald McDonald and the Adventure Machine, The Adventures of Ronald McDonald: McTreasure Island)|
Jack Doepke (The Wacky Adventures of Ronald McDonald; ep. 1–3)
David Hussey (The Wacky Adventures of Ronald McDonald; ep. 4–6, McKids Adventures: Get Up and Go with Ronald)
Bob Stephenson (Logorama)
|Occupation||Clown mascot for the McDonald's fast food chain|
Many people work full-time making appearances as Ronald, visiting children in hospitals and attending regular events. At its height, there may have been as many as 300 full-time clowns at McDonald's restaurants. There are also Ronald McDonald Houses, where parents can stay overnight with their sick children in nearby chronic care facilities.
The origin of Ronald McDonald involves Willard Scott (at the time, a local radio personality who also played Bozo the Clown on WRC-TV in Washington, D.C., from 1959 until 1962), who performed using the moniker "Ronald McDonald, the Hamburger-Happy Clown" in 1963 on three separate television spots. These were the first three television ads featuring the character.
At the time, Bozo was the hottest children's show on the air. You could probably have sent Pluto the Dog or Dumbo the Elephant over and it would have been equally as successful. But I was there, and I was Bozo ... There was something about the combination of hamburgers and Bozo that was irresistible to kids ... That's why when Bozo went off the air a few years later, the local McDonald's people asked me to come up with a new character to take Bozo's place. So, I sat down and created Ronald McDonald.
At the time, Scott was working for Oscar Goldstein, the Washington, DC, area McDonald's franchisee, and numerous sources describe Scott's role as only playing the part of Ronald McDonald, while giving credit for the creation of the mascot to Goldstein and his ad agency.
McDonald's does not mention George Voorhis or acknowledge that Willard Scott created Ronald in their statement:
"The smile known around the world," Ronald McDonald is second only to Santa Claus in terms of recognition. (According to one survey, 96% of all schoolchildren in the United States of America recognize Ronald (stunning-stuff.com)). In his first television appearance in 1963, the clown was portrayed by Willard Scott.
Nonetheless, on March 28, 2000, Henry Gonzalez, McDonald's Northeast Division President, thanked Scott for creating Ronald McDonald during a taped tribute to Scott on the Today Show.
In 2010, the Corporate Accountability International in Boston, Massachusetts, suggested Ronald McDonald should retire due to childhood obesity. However, McDonald's CEO Jim Skinner said there are no plans to retire him.
In April 2011, McDonald's announced that Ronald McDonald will reappear in their commercials, but Ace Metrix stated Ronald McDonald ads are no longer effective. On May 18, 2011, Corporate Accountability International renewed their call to retire Ronald McDonald by running ads in major newspapers and launching several web pages dedicated to the retirement of the character. However, McDonald's CEO Jim Skinner defended Ronald McDonald by saying that he is an ambassador for good and "it's all about choice". Shortly after, McDonald's announced that Ronald McDonald was "here to stay".
In April 2014, McDonald's announced that Ronald McDonald would have a whole new look and new outfits. They also announced that he would be featured in their new commercials as well as on social media websites like Twitter. As part of Ronald's makeover, his jumpsuit has been dropped in favor of yellow cargo pants, a vest and a red-and-white striped rugby shirt; his classic clown shoes remain part of the official uniform.
At any given time, there are dozens to hundreds of actors retained by McDonald's to appear as Ronald McDonald in restaurants and events. It is assumed, however, that the company uses only one actor at a time to play the character in national television commercials. Following is a list of primary American Ronald McDonald actors.
- Willard Scott (Washington, D.C. 1963–1965)
- Bev Bergeron (Southern California, 1966–1968)
- George Voorhis (Southern California, 1968–1970)
- Michael Polakovs (1965–1968)
- Ray Rayner (1968–1969)
- Viv Weekes (1968–1970) (local)
- Bob Brandon (1970–1975) (local)
- King Moody (1969–1985)
- Squire Fridell (1985–1991)
- Jack Doepke (1991–1999)
- David Hussey (2000–2014)
- Brad Lennon (2014–present)
Various forms of the name "Ronald McDonald" as well as costume clown face persona, etc. are registered trademarks of McDonald's. McDonald's trains performers to portray Ronald using identical mannerisms and costume, to contribute to the illusion that they are one character. McDonald's marketing designers and stylists changed elements of the Ronald McDonald character, persona, style, costume and clown face when they adopted the clown as a trademark.
Joe Maggard claim
An actor named Joe Maggard claimed to have performed as Ronald McDonald from 1995 to 2007, though these dates overlap with the portrayals by Jack Doepke and David Hussey. In a 2003 article by The Baltimore Sun, a spokesperson for McDonald's said that Mr. Maggard was simply a stand-in for Ronald for one commercial shoot in the mid-1990s, and stated that "he is definitely not Ronald McDonald."
In Thailand, Ronald McDonald greets people in the traditional Thai "wai" greeting gesture of both hands pressed together. The Thai version of the company mascot was created in 2002 by the local Thai franchise, McThai, as part of a "McThai in the Thai Spirit" campaign. The figure has also been exported to India and other countries where a similar gesture is used. In China, out of respect for Ronald McDonald as an adult, children refer to him as 麦当劳叔叔 (Uncle McDonald). In Japan, Ronald McDonald is called Donald McDonald due to a lack of a clear "r" sound in Japanese enunciation.
Charlton Comics obtained the license to publish four issues of a Ronald comic sold on newsstands in 1970–1971. Over the years several giveaway comics have also been produced starring the character.
In 1991, Ronald appears in the Discover the Rainforest activity book series consisting of Paint It Wild: Paint & See Activity Book, Sticker Safari: Sticker and Activity Book, Wonders in the Wild: Activity Book, and Ronald McDonald and the Jewel of the Amazon Kingdom: Storybook, which are written by Mike Roberts and Russell Mittermeier, Gad Meiron, and Randall Stone, and illustrated by Donna Reynolds and Tim Racer, in which he is seen here as a nature show host and tour guide.
In 1987, Ronald McDonald (with Birdie, Hamburglar, Grimace and the Professor) appeared in an eight-minute animated short film titled Ronald McDonald and the Adventure Machine, which was only shown during birthday parties at McDonald's restaurants.
From 1998 until 2003 a series of direct-to-video animated episodes titled The Wacky Adventures of Ronald McDonald and produced by Klasky Csupo were released in participating McDonald's worldwide on VHS.
Ronald McDonald is the protagonist of three video games: Donald Land, developed by Data East for the Famicom console, released only in Japan in 1988; McDonald's Treasure Land Adventure, developed by Treasure for the Mega Drive console and released in 1993; and Ronald McDonald in Magical World, developed by SIMS for the Game Gear handheld, released only in Japan in 1994.
Ronald McDonald appears for a few seconds in the 1988 film Mac and Me during a birthday scene set at a McDonald's. He is played by Squire Fridell, but is credited as "Ronald McDonald as himself". He won a Golden Raspberry Award for Worst New Star for his appearance in the film. The character also prominently appears in the theatrical trailer for the film.
Because of his prominence, Ronald McDonald has become a symbol, not just of McDonald's but of the fast food industry in the US as a whole, as well as Corporate America, capitalism, globalization and other broader topics. The costume and iconography of Ronald McDonald are often appropriated by protestors and artists wishing to subvert the icon and communicate an anti-corporate message. For example, in 2000, protestors in Hong Kong dressed as Ronald McDonald to protest McDonald's labor policy in China.
Criticism and 2016 appearances
Critics claimed that a clown mascot targeting children for fast food is unethical. A group of 550 doctors took out newspaper ads in 2011, insisting Ronald McDonald retire.
- Bellomo, Mark (2016-10-04). "A Brief History of McDonaldland and the Toys (and Lawsuit) It Spawned". Mental Floss.
- Heller, Karen (30 March 2018). "It's the worst time in history to be a clown. They just want you to love them again". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- "Big Burger Business: McDonald's and Burger King". Heavyweights. Season 2. Episode 3. 2008-04-21. Food Network. Archived from the original on 2008-10-12.
- "McDonald's sends in the clown, again". USA Today. December 10, 2001. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
- Cross, Mary (2002). A Century of American Icons: 100 Products and Slogans from the 20th-Century Consumer Culture. Greenwood Press. pp. 146–147. ISBN 978-0313314810. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
- Bone, James (28 December 2009), "Michael Polakovs: Circus Clown", The Times, London, retrieved 2 August 2010
- McDonald's says no way Ronald will retire, Yahoo!, retrieved 2 August 2010
- Gasparro, Annie (April 7, 2011), McDonald's Puts Ronald Back to Work, Wall Street Journal, retrieved 2 April 2011
- Rexrode, Christina (2011-05-19). "Midlife crisis for Ronald McDonald?". The Sun News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2012-09-12. Retrieved 2011-05-19.
- McDonald's Says Ronald Is Here to Stay, McDonalds.com, retrieved 18 May 2011
- Ronald McDonald Loses Jumpsuit and Joins Twitter, retrieved 24 April 2014
- Ronald McDonald gets a new look; Twitter says, 'NotLovinIt', 2014-04-25, retrieved April 25, 2014
- Williams, Alex (24 April 2014). "Ronald McDonald Officially A Hipster". WebProNews. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
- "McDonald's plans a Ronald revival". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
- "Origins Of Ronald McDonald & McDonaldland". Beneath The Golden Arches (Archived). SimonsWebsite.co.uk. 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-02-25. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
- "April 25 in LGBTQ History | THE LAVENDER EFFECT®".
- "Bio Details (Squire)". GlenLyon Vineyards & Winery. Retrieved March 22, 2020.
- Province, Ben (October 19, 2011). "MBU Runs for Ronald". Malibu Times. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- Leung, Shirley (2 June 2003). "McDonald's plans a Ronald revival". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
- Rungfapaisarn, Kwanchai. "Ronald's 'wai' to hit the States." The Nation (Thailand), September 18, 2002
- "Ronald and Donald McDonald keep their cultural identities". Seattle Post-Intelligencer, December 17, 1996
- "Play Chess Online - oddballcomics.com". oddballcomics.com. Retrieved 2020-06-21.
- Ronald McDonald and the Fries Farmers
- JOHN ALBANO: JONAH HEX and RONALD McDONALD!
- "1991 Discover Rain Forest Book - McDonalds Happy Meal Giveaway #2". eBay. Retrieved 2020-06-21.
- "McDONALD'S Wonders in the Wild ACTIVITY BOOK Discover The Rain Forest 1991 rare". eBay. Retrieved 2020-06-21.
- "Donald Land – Release Details". GameFAQs. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- McDonald's Treasure Land Adventure gamefaqs.com February 05, 2017
- Ronald McDonald in Magical World gamefaqs.com September 20, 2009
- Maltin, Leonard (2003). Leonard Maltin's Movie and Video Guide 2004. Signet. ISBN 0-451-20940-0.
- Smith, Andrew F. (2016). Fast Food: The Good, the Bad and the Hungry. Reaktion Books Ltd. ISBN 9781780236094.
- "LOGORAMA". 2010.
- Goldwert, Lindsay (2011-05-19). "Is Ronald McDonald an evil influence? McDonalds hits back at clown critics". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2017-04-02.
- "The untold truth of McDonald's". Mashed. 20 June 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
- Schlosser, E. (2006) Chew on this: everything you don't want to know about fast food. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.
^ Media related to Ronald McDonald at Wikimedia Commons