Jorge Arturo Agustín Medina Estévez (Spanish: [ˈxoɾxe meˈðina]; 23 December 1926 – 3 October 2021) was a Chilean prelate of the Catholic Church who held senior positions both in his native country and in the Roman Curia. He was prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments from 1996 to 2002 and was made a cardinal in 1998. Beginning in 1985 he served as auxiliary bishop and then from 1987 bishop of Rancagua and then bishop of Valparaíso from 1993 to 1996.
|Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments|
|Appointed||21 June 1996|
|Term ended||1 October 2002|
|Predecessor||Antonio María Javierre Ortas S.D.B.|
|Other post(s)||Cardinal-Priest "pro hac vice" of Santa Saba (2008–21)|
|Ordination||12 June 1954|
by Pio Alberto Fariña Fariña
|Consecration||6 January 1985|
by Pope John Paul II
|Created cardinal||21 February 1998|
by Pope John Paul II
|Birth name||Jorge Arturo Augustin Medina Estévez|
|Born||23 December 1926|
|Died||3 October 2021 (aged 94)|
|Previous post(s)||Titular Bishop of Thibilis (1984–87)|
Auxiliary Bishop of Rancagua (1984–87)
Bishop of Rancagua (1987–93)
Bishop of Valparaíso (1993–96)
Cardinal-Deacon of San Saba (1998–2008)
Cardinal Protodeacon (2005–07)
|Alma mater||Pontifical Catholic University of Chile|
|Motto||Oportet illum crescere (He must increase)|
|Coat of arms|
Early life and ordinationEdit
Medina was born in Santiago in 1926, and studied at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, where he received a bachelor's degree in the arts and biology, and the Major Seminary of Santiago. He was ordained a priest on 12 June 1954 by Bishop Pio Fariña Fariña, the vicar general and an auxiliary bishop of Santiago.
Earning a doctorate in theology in 1955, Medina taught philosophy and theology at the Major Seminary of Santiago and of the Pontifical Catholic University, respectively until 1965. He also served as a dean of the university, and as a peritus at the Second Vatican Council; for the latter he later received an honoris causa doctorate from the University of Notre Dame in 1996.
Pro-Grand Chancellor of the Catholic University from 1974 to 1985, he was named titular bishop of Thibilis and auxiliary bishop of Rancagua on 18 December 1984. Medina was consecrated to the episcopate on 6 January 1985, by Pope John Paul II, with Cardinals Eduardo Martínez Somalo and Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy acting as co-consecrators. He was made Bishop of Rancagua on 25 November 1987, and then Bishop of Valparaíso on 16 April 1993.
Pro-Prefect and PrefectEdit
On 21 June 1996 Medina was appointed Pro-Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments in Rome, being given the title of Prefect of the Congregation from 23 February 1998 until his retirement on 1 October 2002. He was an energetic and capable administrator and a hard worker. He also showed his intelligence, linguistic capabilities and theological preparation, and a sense of humour, directed often against himself. While exacting at the level of work output, he was kind and humane to those under his authority.
|Reference style||His Eminence|
|Spoken style||Your Eminence|
Medina was one of the cardinal electors who participated in the 2005 papal conclave. Following the conclusion of the conclave, as Cardinal Protodeacon, the senior cardinal deacon, he announced to the world the election of Pope Benedict XVI. He was the first non-Italian to do so in centuries and the first Latin American. As protodeacon, Medina imposed the pallium on Pope Benedict XVI and was one of the three cardinals who made the public act of obedience to him at the papal inauguration.
In retirement he returned to Chile in order to work as a parish priest. In the same period he published many short works of a pastoral nature.
Medina was a man of controversial views. He was a supporter of the Chilean coup d'etat by General Augusto Pinochet and the regime it established. He was accused of having in his capacity as dean of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile of being one of the main denouncers of students and teachers suspected of having communist or socialist affiliations, many of whom become disappeared detainees. He never acknowledged the human rights violations of Pinochet's regime, including those featured in the Rettig Report or the Valech Report.
In December 2008, at a Mass marking the second anniversary of the death of Pinochet, Medina condemned pop musician Madonna, who was appearing in Santiago. He said "The atmosphere in our city is pretty agitated because this woman is visiting and with incredibly shameful behavior provokes a wild and lustful enthusiasm."
Sexual abuse of minors by priestsEdit
The prominent 80-year-old priest Fernando Karadima was found guilty in January 2011 by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith of having sexually abused minors and ordered to retire to a life of prayer and penitence and never to exercise the priesthood in public again, Karadima was then accused under Chilean civil law of sexual abuse of minors, Medina is reported to have said that he doubted that the cleric would be sent to prison, since homosexual activity was not a crime in Chilean civil law and use of the term "sexual abuse" could be questioned: "With all due respect to the laws of my country, a child of 8 or 9 is very different from a 17-year-old ... A 17-year-old youngster knows what he is doing." He also remarked that priests are not immune to the devil's works: "Any informed Christian knows we are prone to weakness because of our human fragility. The devil gets in where he can. Priests are not immune from his snares." He defended the canonical sanctions imposed on Karadima as being the heaviest that could be imposed short of laicization, and as having taken into account Karadima's age and merits.
One of Karadima's accusers called the cardinal's remark about 17-year-olds "an unwarranted attack". Another added that it was an attack not only on those who had denounced Karadima, but on all who were honestly looking for truth and justice for their lives. He regarded Medina's statements as "extremely suspicious, as if he wanted to diminish the outline of these grave actions, reducing the issue to homosexuality in a very silly manner, as if, furthermore, homosexuality and abuse were synonymous". The statements, he said, "were an attempt to free from responsibility someone who took advantage of his position of power over more vulnerable persons".
- "Falleció Cardenal Jorge Medina Estévez". Conferencia Episcopal de Chile (in Spanish). 3 October 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
- Cheney, David M. "Jorge Arturo Augustin Cardinal Medina Estévez". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- "MEDINA ESTÉVEZ Card. Jorge Arturo". press.vatican.va. Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
- Pope Benedict XVI Starts His Papacy. AmericanCatholic.org article on Pope Benedict XVI's inauguration. Retrieved 13 April 2013
- on YouTube Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Chilean priest praises Pinochet, condemns Madonna". livejournal.com. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- "A los 94 años muere el cardenal Jorge Medina Estévez". La Tercera (in Spanish). 3 October 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
- "Lustful Madonna offends God, says clergyman". Reuters. 11 December 2008. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
- Barrionuevo, Alexei; Bonnefoy, Pascale (18 February 2011). "Chilean Priest Found Guilty of Abusing Minors". New York Times. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
- "Vatican official's visit to Chile unrelated to abuse case of popular priest". EWTN News. 23 May 2011. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2002..
- "CARDENAL MEDINA Y CASO KARADIMA: 'UN JOVEN DE 17 AÑOS SABE LO QUE HACE'". Nación (in Spanish). 1 April 2011. Archived from the original on 9 July 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
- Barrionuevo, Alexei (14 March 2011). "Chile: Priest Sex Abuse Case Re-Opened". New York Times. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
- "Cardenal Medina por abusos sexuales en la Iglesia: "Un joven de 17 años sabe lo que hace"". El Mercurio (in Spanish). 1 April 2011. Archived from the original on 7 April 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
- Field, Jeff. Keller, Bill (ed.). "Not All Gay Sex Is Abusive". Standard Newswire. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
- "Priests not immune from the devil, cardinal warns". Catholic News Agency. 4 April 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
- Baeza Palavecino, Angélica. "Demandante de Karadima critica dichos de cardenal Medina: 'Son una agresión sin fundamentos'". La Tercera (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
- "Víctima de Karadima critica dichos de Cardenal Medina: 'Constituyen una agresión'". La Segunda (in Spanish). 5 April 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
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- on YouTube.