Index of Economic Freedom

The 2021 Heritage Foundation Index of Economic Freedom overall heatmap

The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created in 1995 by conservative think-tank The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations. The creators of the index claim to take an approach inspired by Adam Smith's in The Wealth of Nations, that "basic institutions that protect the liberty of individuals to pursue their own economic interests result in greater prosperity for the larger society".[1][2]

PurposeEdit

The Heritage Foundation website states that "Economic freedom is the fundamental right of every human to control his or her own labor and property. In an economically free society, individuals are free to work, produce, consume, and invest in any way they please. In economically free societies, governments allow labor, capital, and goods to move freely, and refrain from coercion or constraint of liberty beyond the extent necessary to protect and maintain liberty itself."[3] By publishing yearly reports the foundation attempts to highlight where such freedoms do and don't exist.

The Heritage Foundation reports that the top 20% on the index have twice the per capita income of those in the second quintile, and five times that of the bottom 20%.[4] Carl Schramm, who wrote the first chapter of the 2008 Index, states that cities of Medieval Italy and mid-19th century Midwestern American cities all flourished to the degree they possessed economic fluidity and institutional adaptiveness created by economic freedom.[5]

According to Will Wilkinson of the libertarian think tank Cato Institute, studies show that higher economic freedom correlates strongly with higher self-reported happiness.[6] According to economists Tomi Ovaska and Ryo Takashima, economic freedom research suggests "that people unmistakably care about the degree to which the society where they live provides them opportunities and the freedom to undertake new projects, strongly with and make choices based on one's personal preferences."[7]

According to the Cato Institute, higher economic freedom promotes participation and collaboration.[8] Also claimed is that higher economic freedom is extremely significant in preventing wars; according to their calculations, freedom is around 54 times more effective than democracy (as measured by Democracy Score) in diminishing violent conflict.[9]

RatingsEdit

Since the index was created in 1995, the score for world economic freedom has increased, rising 2.6 points up to 2008.[10] In 2011 the score had decreased from the 2008 score of 60.2 to 59.7, which represents an increase of 2.2 points since 1995. The Economic Freedom score improved for 117 countries, the majority of countries included in the index, which were mainly developing and emerging market economies. With the exception of Europe and North America, there were increased levels of freedom recorded in all regions, with the greatest improvement shown in Sub-Saharan Africa. The top five "free" economies identified by the 2011 index were Hong Kong, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, and Switzerland, each scoring over 80 on the economic freedom grading scale.[11] Since the Index was created in 1995, Hong Kong has been the top performing economy.[11][12]

In 2011, the United States dropped to 9th place behind such countries as Denmark, Canada, and first-place Hong Kong.[11] The Heritage Foundation has pointed to increases in government spending as the reason for the United States' decline, and according to data from the 2011 index, the growth rates of countries with the highest levels of government spending were 4.5 points lower, on average, than countries where government spending was under control.[13] In their "Executive Highlights" of index results, the Heritage Foundation stated that "high levels of government spending in response to the global economic turmoil have not resulted in higher economic growth".[11]

The results from the 2012 index showed an overall decline in global economic freedom; according to The Heritage Foundation, the average score in its ranking was the second lowest of the last ten years.[14] In particular, the U.S. dropped to 10th place in the ranking, and has now fallen three places since 2008, when it was 7th.[15] A report issued by the Foundation stated that government spending was the cause of the decline, and had "not only failed to arrest the economic crisis, but also - in many countries - seems to be prolonging it".[16] According to the report, activity in the private sector is threatened by the greater government spending, which has increased public debt and led to more bureaucracy.[14]

Countries that shared the same rank received a tie score.

ReceptionEdit

According to the Freedom House, "there is a high and statistically significant correlation between the level of political freedom as measured by Freedom House and economic freedom as measured by the Wall Street Journal/Heritage Foundation survey."[17] The Millennium Challenge Account, a U.S. government foreign aid program, has used the Trade freedom indicator in determining which countries will receive their performance-based compacts.[18]

Critics such as Jeffrey Sachs have contested the Index's assumption that economic openness necessarily leads to better growth. In his book The End of Poverty, Sachs graphed countries' ratings on the index against GDP per capita growth between 1995 and 2003, claiming to demonstrate no correlation between a country's rating and its rate of economic growth. Sachs pointed out, as examples, that countries with good ratings such as Switzerland and Uruguay had sluggish economic performances, others, like China, with poorer rating had very strong economic growth.[19]

The UAE questioned the rating of their country's economic freedom in 2008, comparing its middling rating with the high rating they had received from other indicators such as Transparency International and Moody's. They also argued that the report is "unreliable", because its methodology had changed twice in the last two years.[20]

Stefan Karlsson of the Ludwig von Mises Institute challenged the usefulness of the index due to the fuzziness of many of the categories used to determine freedom.[21] John Miller roundly criticizes the "Index", writing in Dollars & Sense, "In the hands of the Wall Street Journal and the Heritage Foundation, Washington's foremost right-wing think tank, however, an economic freedom index merely measures corporate and entrepreneurial freedom from accountability. Upon examination, the index turns out to be a poor barometer of either freedom more broadly construed or of prosperity."[22] According to Left Business Observer, growth in Index accounts for 10% of the variation in the growth of GDP.[23]

MethodologyEdit

The ranking scores aspects of economic freedom between 0 and 100, with 0 meaning "no economic freedom" and 100 meaning "total economic freedom". There are twelve aspects divided into four categories.[24]

Rule of lawEdit

Property rightsEdit

Degree of a country's legal protection of private property rights and degree of enforcement of those laws. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. physical property rights
  2. intellectual property rights
  3. strength of investor protection
  4. risk of expropriation
  5. quality of land administration

Judicial effectivenessEdit

Degree of the judiciary's efficiency and fairness, especially dealing with property laws. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. judicial independence
  2. quality of the judicial process
  3. likelihood of obtaining favorable judicial decisions

Government integrityEdit

Analyzes how prevalent are forms of political corruption and practices such as bribery, extortion, nepotism, cronyism, patronage, embezzlement, and graft. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. public trust in politicians
  2. irregular payments and bribes
  3. transparency of government policymaking
  4. absence of corruption
  5. perceptions of corruption
  6. governmental and civil service transparency

Government sizeEdit

Tax burdenEdit

Analyzes marginal tax rates on personal and corporate income and the overall taxation level (including direct and indirect taxes imposed by all levels of government) as a percentage of the GDP. Its sub-factors are:

  1. top marginal tax rate on individual income
  2. top marginal tax rate on corporate income
  3. total tax burden as a percentage of GDP

Government spendingEdit

Quantifies the burden of government expenditures, including consumption by the state and all transfer payments related to various entitlement programs. The ideal level varies from country to country, but zero expenditure is used as a benchmark.

Fiscal healthEdit

Analyzes how well a country manages its budget by quantifying the growing debt and deficit. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. average deficits as a percentage of GDP for the most recent three years (80 percent of score)
  2. debt as a percentage of GDP (20 percent of score)

Regulatory efficiencyEdit

Business freedomEdit

Analyzes the cost, time and freedom to open, operate and close a business, taking into consideration factors like electricity. It is divided into thirteen sub-factors:

  1. starting a business - procedures (number);
  2. starting a business - time (days);
  3. starting a business - cost (% of income per capita);
  4. starting a business - minimum capital (% of income per capita);
  5. obtaining a license - procedures (number);
  6. obtaining a license - time (days);
  7. obtaining a license - cost (% of income per capita);
  8. closing a business - time (years);
  9. closing a business - cost (% of estate);
  10. closing a business - recovery rate (cents on the dollar);
  11. getting electricity - procedures (number);
  12. getting electricity - time (days); and
  13. getting electricity - cost (% of income per capita).

Labor freedomEdit

Quantifies the intrusiveness of labor rights such as minimum wage, laws inhibiting layoffs, severance requirements, and measurable regulatory restraints on hiring and hours worked, plus the labor force participation rate as an indicative measure of employment opportunities in the labor market. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. ratio of minimum wage to the average value added per worker
  2. hindrance to hiring additional workers
  3. rigidity of hours
  4. difficulty of firing redundant employees
  5. legally mandated notice period
  6. mandatory severance pay
  7. labor force participation rate

Monetary freedomEdit

Analyzes how stable are prices and how much microeconomy intervenes. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. weighted average inflation rate for the most recent three years
  2. price controls

Market opennessEdit

Trade freedomEdit

Quantifies the extent to which tariff and nontariff barriers affect imports and exports of goods and services into and out of the country. Its sub-factors are:

  1. trade-weighted average tariff rate
  2. nontariff barriers (NTBs)

Investment freedomEdit

Analyzes how free or constrained is the flow of investment capital of individuals and firms.

Financial freedomEdit

Indicates banking efficiency as well as how independent the government is from the financial sector. This aspect looks at five broad areas:

  1. extent of government regulation of financial services
  2. degree of state intervention in banks and other financial firms through direct and indirect ownership
  3. government influence on the allocation of credit
  4. extent of financial and capital market development
  5. openness to foreign competition

Previous MethodologyEdit

The Index's 2008 definition of economic freedom is "the highest form of economic freedom provides an absolute right of property ownership, fully realized freedoms of movement for labor, capital, and goods, and an absolute absence of coercion or constraint of economic liberty beyond the extent necessary for citizens to protect and maintain liberty itself."[25]

The index scores nations on ten factors of economic freedom, separated into four categories, using statistics from organizations like the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, Economist Intelligence Unit and Transparency International. In each factor, countries are scored 0 to 100, with 0 being the least free and 100 the most free. A score of 100 signifies an economic environment or set of policies that is most conducive to economic freedom.[25] The methodology has shifted and changed as new data and measurements have become available, especially in the area of Labor Freedom, which was given its own indicator spot in 2007.[2] The following list explains what each factor currently assesses and groups them according to their respective category:

Rule of Law
Limited Government
  • Fiscal Freedom: How free is a country from tax burden. It comprises three quantitative measures: top marginal tax rate of both individual (1) and corporate (2) income, and total tax burden as a percentage of GDP (3).
  • Government Size/Spending: Governments' expenditures as a percentage of GDP, including consumption and transfers. The higher the percentual spending, the lower the score.
Regulatory Efficiency
  • Business Freedom: A country's freedom from the burden of regulations on starting, operating, and closing business, given factors such as time, cost and number of procedures, as well as the efficiency of government in the regulatory process.
  • Labor Freedom: How free is a country from legal regulation on the labor market, including those relating to minimum wages, hiring and firing, hours of work and severance requirements.
  • Monetary Freedom: How free from microeconomic intervention and price instability is a country, basing on an equation considering the weighted average inflation rate in the last three years and price controls.
Open Markets
  • Trade Freedom: Freedom from sizeable numbers and burdens of tariffs and non-tariff barriers to imports and exports of a country.
  • Investment Freedom: Freedom from restrictions on the movement and use of investment capital, regardless of activity, within and across the country's borders.
  • Financial Freedom: A country's independence from government control and interference in the financial sector, including banks. It considers government ownership of financial firms, extent of financial and capital market development, government influence on the allocation of credit and openness to foreign competition.

RankingsEdit

2021 IndexEdit

As of 2021, Singapore’s economic freedom score is 89.7, making it the world’s freest economy in the Index. Singapore is ranked 1st among 40 countries in the Asia-Pacific region, and its overall score is well above the regional and world averages.

Key: ██ Free (80–100) ██ Mostly Free (70–79.9) ██ Moderately Free (65–69.9) ██ Moderately Unfree (60–64.9) ██ Mostly Unfree (55–59.9) ██ Mostly Unfree (50–54.9) ██ Repressed (0–49.9)

Country[26] Rank Score Change
 Singapore 1 89.7 Increase 0.3
 New Zealand 2 83.9 Decrease 0.2
 Australia 3 82.4 Decrease 0.2
  Switzerland 4 81.9 Decrease 0.1
 Ireland 5 81.4 Increase 0.5
 Taiwan 6 78.6 Increase 1.5
 United Kingdom 7 78.4 Decrease 0.9
 Estonia 8 78.2 Increase 0.5
 Canada 9 77.9 Decrease 0.3
 Denmark 10 77.8 Decrease 0.5
 Iceland 11 77.4 Increase 0.3
 Georgia 12 77.2 Increase 0.1
 Mauritius 13 77.0 Increase 2.1
 United Arab Emirates 14 76.9 Increase 0.7
 Lithuania 15 76.9 Increase 0.2
 Netherlands 16 76.8 Decrease 0.2
 Finland 17 76.1 Increase 0.4
 Luxembourg 18 76.0 Increase 0.2
 Chile 19 75.2 Decrease 1.6
 United States 20 74.8 Decrease 1.8
 Sweden 21 74.7 Decrease 0.2
 Malaysia 22 74.4 Decrease 0.3
 Japan 23 74.1 Increase 0.8
 South Korea 24 74.0 Steady 0.0
 Austria 25 73.9 Increase 0.6
 Israel 26 73.8 Decrease 0.2
 Czech Republic 27 73.8 Decrease 1.0
 Norway 28 73.4 Steady 0.0
 Germany 29 72.5 Decrease 1.0
 Latvia 30 72.3 Increase 0.4
 Qatar 31 72.0 Decrease 0.3
 Armenia 32 71.9 Increase 1.3
 Cyprus 33 71.4 Increase 1.3
 Kazakhstan 34 71.1 Increase 1.5
 Bulgaria 35 70.4 Increase 0.2
 Malta 36 70.2 Increase 0.7
 Belgium 37 70.1 Increase 1.2
 Azerbaijan 38 70.1 Increase 0.8
 Spain 39 69.9 Increase 3.0
 Bahrain 40 69.9 Increase 3.6
 Poland 41 69.7 Increase 0.6
 Thailand 42 69.7 Increase 0.3
 Romania 43 69.5 Decrease 0.2
 Uruguay 44 69.3 Increase 0.2
 Jamaica 45 69.0 Increase 0.5
 North Macedonia 46 68.6 Decrease 0.9
 Rwanda 47 68.3 Decrease 2.6
 Slovenia 48 68.3 Increase 0.5
 Colombia 49 68.1 Decrease 1.1
 Peru 50 67.7 Decrease 0.2
 Botswana 51 67.6 Decrease 2.0
 Portugal 52 67.5 Increase 0.5
 Saint Lucia 53 67.5 Decrease 0.7
 Serbia 54 67.2 Increase 1.2
 Hungary 55 67.2 Increase 0.8
 Indonesia 56 66.9 Decrease 0.3
 Brunei Darussalam 57 66.6 Steady 0.0
 Kosovo 58 66.5 Decrease 0.9
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 59 66.3 Decrease 0.5
 Seychelles 60 66.3 Increase 2.0
 Slovakia 61 66.3 Decrease 0.5
 Panama 62 66.2 Decrease 1.0
 Saudi Arabia 63 66.0 Increase 3.6
 France 64 65.7 Decrease 0.3
 Mexico 65 65.5 Decrease 0.5
 Albania 66 65.2 Decrease 1.7
 Barbados 67 65.0 Increase 3.6
 Italy 68 64.9 Increase 1.1
 Jordan 69 64.6 Decrease 1.4
 The Bahamas 70 64.4 Increase 0.1
 Oman 71 64.6 Increase 1.0
 Costa Rica 72 64.2 Decrease 1.6
 Philippines 73 64.1 Decrease 0.4
 Kuwait 74 64.1 Increase 0.9
 Guatemala 75 64.0 Increase 0.0
 Turkey 76 64.0 Decrease 0.4
 Cabo Verde 77 63.8 Increase 0.2
 Kyrgyzstan 78 63.7 Increase 0.8
 Croatia 79 63.6 Increase 1.4
 Montenegro 80 63.4 Increase 1.9
 Morocco 81 63.3 Steady 0.0
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 82 62.9 Increase 0.3
 Namibia 83 62.6 Increase 1.7
 Paraguay 84 62.6 Decrease 0.4
 Moldova 85 62.5 Increase 0.5
 Mongolia 86 62.4 Increase 6.5
 Fiji 87 62.2 Decrease 1.2
 Dominican Republic 88 62.1 Increase 1.2
 Samoa 89 61.9 Decrease 0.2
 Vietnam 90 61.7 Increase 2.9
 Ivory Coast 91 61.7 Increase 2.0
 Russia 92 61.5 Increase 0.5
 Tanzania 93 61.3 Decrease 0.4
 El Salvador 94 61.0 Decrease 0.6
 Belarus 95 61.0 Decrease 0.7
 Greece 96 60.9 Increase 1.0
 Vanuatu 97 60.5 Decrease 0.2
 Honduras 98 59.8 Decrease 1.3
 South Africa 99 59.7 Increase 0.9
 Benin 100 59.6 Increase 4.4
 Ghana 101 59.2 Decrease 0.2
 Trinidad and Tobago 102 59.0 Increase 0.7
 Papua New Guinea 103 58.9 Increase 0.5
 The Gambia 104 58.8 Increase 2.5
 Nigeria 105 58.7 Increase 1.5
 Uganda 106 58.6 Decrease 0.9
 China 107 58.4 Decrease 1.1
 Uzbekistan 108 58.3 Increase 1.1
 Bhutan 109 58.3 Decrease 3.8
 Gabon 110 58.1 Increase 1.4
 Senegal 111 58.0 Steady 0.0
 Madagascar 112 57.7 Decrease 2.8
 Togo 113 57.5 Increase 3.4
 Belize 114 57.5 Increase 0.1
 Tonga 115 57.5 Decrease 1.3
 Guyana 116 57.4 Increase 1.2
 Niger 117 57.3 Increase 2.6
 Cambodia 118 57.3 Steady 0.0
 Tunisia 119 56.6 Increase 0.8
 Bangladesh 120 56.5 Increase 0.1
 India 121 56.5 Steady 0.0
 Solomon Islands 122 56.5 Increase 3.6
 Guinea 123 56.5 Steady 0.0
 Burkina Faso 124 56.5 Decrease 0.2
 Nicaragua 125 56.3 Decrease 0.9
 Djibouti 126 56.2 Increase 3.3
 Ukraine 127 56.2 Increase 1.3
 Mauritania 128 56.1 Increase 0.8
 São Tomé and Príncipe 129 55.9 Decrease 0.3
 Egypt 130 55.7 Increase 1.7
 Sri Lanka 131 55.7 Decrease 1.7
 Comoros 132 55.7 Increase 2.0
 Mali 133 55.6 Decrease 0.3
 Tajikistan 134 55.2 Increase 3.0
 Myanmar 135 55.2 Increase 1.2
 Maldives 136 55.2 Decrease 1.3
 Eswatini 137 55.1 Decrease 0.2
 Kenya 138 54.9 Decrease 0.4
 Guinea-Bissau 139 54.9 Increase 1.6
 Angola 140 54.2 Increase 2.0
 Laos 141 53.9 Decrease 1.6
 Lesotho 142 53.5 Decrease 1.0
 Brazil 143 53.4 Decrease 0.3
 Cameroon 144 53.4 Decrease 0.2
 Malawi 145 53.0 Increase 0.2
 Afghanistan 146 53.0 Decrease 1.7
 Dominica 147 53.0 Decrease 7.8
 Argentina 148 52.7 Decrease 0.4
 Ecuador 149 52.4 Increase 1.1
 Sierra Leone 150 51.7 Increase 3.7
 Ethiopia 151 51.7 Decrease 1.9
 Pakistan 152 51.7 Decrease 3.1
 Mozambique 153 51.6 Increase 1.1
 Lebanon 154 51.4 Decrease 0.3
 Haiti 155 50.8 Decrease 1.5
 Republic of the Congo 156 50.7 Increase 8.9
   Nepal 157 50.7 Decrease 3.5
 Chad 158 50.4 Increase 0.2
 Zambia 159 50.4 Decrease 3.1
 Micronesia 160 50.4 Decrease 1.6
 Burundi 161 49.9 Increase 0.9
 Algeria 162 49.7 Increase 2.8
 Equatorial Guinea 163 49.2 Increase 0.9
 Liberia 164 49.2 Increase 0.2
 Congo-Kinshasa 165 49.0 Decrease 0.5
 Central African Republic 166 48.8 Decrease 1.9
 Turkmenistan 167 47.4 Increase 0.9
 Iran 168 47.2 Decrease 2.0
 Suriname 169 46.4 Decrease 3.1
 Timor-Leste 170 44.7 Decrease 1.2
 Kiribati 171 44.4 Decrease 0.8
 Bolivia 172 42.7 Decrease 0.1
 Eritrea 173 42.3 Increase 3.8
 Zimbabwe 174 39.5 Decrease 3.6
 Sudan 175 39.1 Decrease 5.9
 Cuba 176 28.1 Increase 1.2
 Venezuela 177 24.7 Decrease 0.5
 North Korea 178 5.2 Increase 1.0

Not rankedEdit

Previous RankingsEdit

Key: ██ Free (80–100) ██ Mostly Free (70.0–79.9) ██ Moderately Free (60.0–69.9) ██ Mostly Unfree (50.0–59.9) ██ Repressed (0–49.9)

  2020[27] 2019[28] 2018[29] 2017[30] 2016[31] 2015[32] 2014[33] 2013[34]
Country Rank Score Change in Yearly Score from 2019 Rank Score Change in Yearly Score from 2018 Rank Score Change in Yearly Score from 2017 Rank Score Change in Yearly Score from 2016 Rank Score Change in Yearly Score from 2015 Rank Score Change in Yearly Score from 2014 Rank Score Change in Yearly Score from 2013 Rank Score
 Hong Kong Decrease 2 89.1 Decrease -1.1 Steady 1 90.2 Steady 0.0 Steady 1 90.2 Increase 0.4 Steady 1 89.8 Increase 1.2 Steady 1 88.6 Decrease -1.0 Steady 1 89.6 Decrease -0.5 Steady 1 90.1 Increase 0.8 1 89.3
 Singapore Increase 1 89.4 Steady 0.0 Steady 2 89.4 Increase 0.6 Steady 2 88.8 Increase 0.2 Steady 2 88.6 Increase 0.8 Steady 2 87.8 Decrease -1.6 Steady 2 89.4 Steady 0.0 Steady 2 89.4 Increase 1.4 2 88.0
 New Zealand Steady 3 84.1 Decrease -0.3 Steady 3 84.4 Increase 0.2 Steady 3 84.2 Increase 0.5 Steady 3 83.7 Increase 2.1 Steady 3 81.6 Decrease -0.5 Increase 3 82.1 Increase 0.9 Decrease 5 81.2 Decrease -0.2 4 81.4
  Switzerland Decrease 5 82.0 Increase 0.1 Steady 4 81.9 Increase 0.2 Steady 4 81.7 Increase 0.2 Steady 4 81.5 Increase 0.5 Increase 4 81.0 Increase 0.5 Decrease 5 80.5 Decrease -1.1 Increase 4 81.6 Increase 0.6 5 81.0
 Australia Increase 4 82.6 Increase 1.7 Steady 5 80.9 Steady 0.0 Steady 5 80.9 Decrease -0.1 Steady 5 81.0 Increase 0.7 Decrease 5 80.3 Decrease -1.1 Decrease 4 81.4 Decrease -0.6 Decrease 3 82.0 Decrease -0.6 3 82.6
 Estonia Increase 10 77.7 Increase 1.1 Decrease 15 76.6 Decrease -2.2 Decrease 7 78.8 Decrease -0.3 Increase 6 79.1 Increase 1.9 Decrease 9 77.2 Increase 0.4 Increase 8 76.8 Increase 0.9 Increase 11 75.9 Increase 0.6 13 75.3
 Canada Decrease 9 78.2 Increase 0.5 Increase 8 77.7 Steady 0.0 Decrease 9 77.7 Decrease -0.8 Decrease 7 78.5 Increase 0.5 Steady 6 78 Decrease -1.1 Steady 6 79.1 Decrease -1.1 Steady 6 80.2 Increase 0.8 6 79.4
 United Arab Emirates Decrease 18 76.2 Decrease -1.4 Increase 9 77.6 Steady 0.0 Decrease 10 77.6 Increase 0.7 Increase 8 76.9 Increase 4.3 Steady 25 72.6 Increase 0.2 Increase 25 72.4 Increase 1.0 Steady 28 71.4 Increase 0.3 28 71.1
 Ireland Steady 6 80.9 Increase 0.4 Steady 6 80.5 Increase 0.1 Increase 6 80.4 Increase 3.7 Decrease 9 76.7 Decrease -0.6 Increase 8 77.3 Increase 0.7 Steady 9 76.6 Increase 0.4 Increase 9 76.2 Increase 0.5 11 75.7
 Chile Increase 15 76.8 Increase 1.4 Increase 18 75.4 Increase 0.2 Decrease 20 75.2 Decrease -1.3 Decrease 10 76.5 Decrease -1.2 Steady 7 77.7 Decrease -0.8 Steady 7 78.5 Decrease -0.2 Steady 7 78.7 Decrease -0.3 7 79.0
 Taiwan Decrease 11 77.1 Decrease -0.2 Increase 10 77.3 Increase 0.7 Decrease 13 76.6 Increase 0.1 Increase 11 76.5 Increase 1.8 Steady 14 74.7 Decrease -0.4 Increase 14 75.1 Increase 1.2 Increase 17 73.9 Increase 1.2 20 72.7
 United Kingdom Steady 7 79.3 Increase 0.4 Increase 7 78.9 Increase 0.9 Increase 8 78.0 Increase 1.6 Decrease 12 76.4 Steady 0.0 Increase 10 76.4 Increase 0.6 Increase 13 75.8 Increase 0.9 Steady 14 74.9 Increase 0.1 14 74.8
 Georgia Increase 12 77.1 Increase 1.2 Steady 16 75.9 Decrease -0.3 Decrease 16 76.2 Increase 0.2 Increase 13 76.0 Increase 3.4 Decrease 23 72.6 Increase 0.4 Steady 22 73.0 Increase 0.4 Decrease 22 72.6 Increase 0.4 21 72.2
 Luxembourg Decrease 19 75.8 Decrease -0.1 Decrease 17 75.9 Decrease -0.5 Steady 14 76.4 Increase 0.5 Increase 14 75.9 Increase 2.0 Increase 19 73.9 Increase 0.7 Decrease 21 73.2 Decrease -1.0 Decrease 16 74.2 Steady 0.0 15 74.2
 Netherlands Decrease 14 77.0 Increase 0.2 Increase 13 76.8 Increase 0.6 Decrease 17 76.2 Increase 0.4 Increase 15 75.8 Increase 1.2 Increase 16 74.6 Increase 0.9 Decrease 17 73.7 Decrease -0.5 Increase 15 74.2 Increase 0.7 17 73.5
 Lithuania Increase 16 76.7 Increase 2.5 Decrease 21 74.2 Decrease -1.1 Decrease 19 75.3 Decrease -0.5 Decrease 16 75.8 Increase 0.6 Increase 13 75.2 Increase 0.5 Increase 15 74.7 Increase 1.7 Increase 21 73.0 Increase 0.9 22 72.1
 United States Decrease 17 76.6 Decrease -0.2 Increase 12 76.8 Increase 1.1 Decrease 18 75.7 Increase 0.6 Decrease 17 75.1 Decrease -0.3 Increase 11 75.4 Decrease -0.8 Steady 12 76.2 Increase 0.7 Decrease 12 75.5 Decrease -0.5 10 76.0
 Denmark Increase 8 78.3 Increase 1.6 Decrease 14 76.7 Increase 0.1 Increase 12 76.6 Increase 1.5 Decrease 18 75.1 Decrease -0.2 Decrease 12 75.3 Decrease -1.0 Decrease 11 76.3 Increase 0.2 Decrease 10 76.1 Steady 0.0 9 76.1
 Sweden Decrease 22 74.9 Decrease -0.3 Decrease 19 75.2 Decrease -1.1 Increase 15 76.3 Increase 1.4 Increase 19 74.9 Increase 2.9 Decrease 26 72.0 Decrease -0.7 Decrease 23 72.7 Decrease -0.4 Decrease 20 73.1 Increase 0.2 18 72.9
 Latvia Increase 32 71.9 Increase 1.5 Decrease 35 70.4 Decrease -3.2 Decrease 28 73.6 Decrease -1.2 Increase 20 74.8 Increase 4.4 Increase 36 70.4 Increase 0.7 Increase 37 69.7 Increase 1.0 Increase 42 68.7 Increase 2.2 55 66.5
 Mauritius Increase 21 74.9 Increase 1.9 Decrease 25 73.0 Decrease -2.1 Steady 21 75.1 Increase 0.4 Decrease 21 74.7 Decrease 0.0 Decrease 15 74.7 Decrease -1.7 Decrease 10 76.4 Decrease -0.1 Steady 8 76.5 Decrease -0.4 8 76.9
 Iceland Decrease 13 77.1 Steady 0.0 Steady 11 77.1 Increase 0.1 Increase 11 77.0 Increase 2.6 Decrease 22 74.4 Increase 1.1 Increase 20 73.3 Increase 1.3 Decrease 26 72.0 Decrease -0.4 Steady 23 72.4 Increase 0.3 23 72.1
 South Korea Increase 25 74.0 Increase 1.7 Decrease 29 72.3 Decrease -1.5 Decrease 27 73.8 Decrease -0.5 Increase 23 74.3 Increase 2.6 Increase 27 71.7 Increase 0.2 Increase 29 71.5 Increase 0.3 Increase 31 71.2 Increase 0.9 34 70.3
 Finland Steady 20 75.7 Increase 0.8 Increase 20 74.9 Increase 0.8 Decrease 26 74.1 Increase 0.1 Steady 24 74.0 Increase 1.4 Decrease 24 72.6 Decrease -0.8 Steady 19 73.4 Steady 0.0 Decrease 19 73.4 Decrease -0.6 16 74.0
 Norway Decrease 28 73.4 Increase 0.4 Decrease 26 73.0 Decrease -1.3 Increase 23 74.3 Increase 0.3 Increase 25 74.0 Increase 3.2 Decrease 32 70.8 Decrease -1.0 Increase 27 71.8 Increase 0.9 Decrease 32 70.9 Increase 0.4 31 70.5
 Germany Decrease 27 73.5 Steady 0.0 Increase 24 73.5 Decrease -0.7 Increase 25 74.2 Increase 0.4 Decrease 26 73.8 Decrease -0.6 Decrease 17 74.4 Increase 0.6 Increase 16 73.8 Increase 0.4 Increase 18 73.4 Increase 0.6 19 72.8
 Malaysia Decrease 24 74.7 Increase 0.7 Steady 22 74.0 Decrease -0.5 Increase 22 74.5 Increase 0.7 Increase 27 73.8 Increase 2.3 Increase 29 71.5 Increase 0.7 Increase 31 70.8 Increase 1.2 Increase 37 69.6 Increase 3.5 56 66.1
 Czech Republic Steady 23 74.8 Increase 1.1 Increase 23 73.7 Decrease -0.5 Increase 24 74.2 Increase 0.9 Decrease 28 73.3 Increase 0.1 Increase 21 73.2 Increase 0.7 Increase 24 72.5 Increase 0.3 Increase 26 72.2 Increase 1.3 29 70.9
 Qatar Decrease 31 72.3 Decrease -0.3 Increase 28 72.6 Steady 0.0 Steady 29 72.6 Decrease -0.5 Increase 29 73.1 Increase 2.4 Decrease 34 70.7 Decrease -0.1 Decrease 32 70.8 Decrease -0.4 Decrease 30 71.2 Decrease -0.1 27 71.3
 Austria Increase 29 73.3 Increase 1.3 Increase 31 72.0 Increase 0.2 Decrease 32 71.8 Decrease -0.5 Decrease 30 72.3 Increase 0.6 Increase 28 71.7 Increase 0.5 Decrease 30 71.2 Decrease -1.2 Increase 24 72.4 Increase 0.6 25 71.8
 North Macedonia Decrease 41 69.5 Decrease -1.6 Steady 33 71.1 Decrease -0.2 Decrease 33 71.3 Increase 0.6 Increase 31 70.7 Increase 3.2 Increase 47 67.5 Increase 0.4 Decrease 53 67.1 Decrease -1.5 Steady 43 68.6 Increase 0.4 43 68.2
 Macau Decrease 35 70.3 Decrease -0.7 Steady 34 71.0 Increase 0.1 Decrease 34 70.9 Increase 0.2 Increase 32 70.7 Increase 0.6 Decrease 37 70.1 Decrease -0.2 Decrease 34 70.3 Decrease -1.0 Decrease 29 71.3 Decrease -0.4 26 71.7
 Armenia Increase 34 70.6 Increase 2.9 Decrease 47 67.7 Decrease -1.0 Decrease 44 68.7 Decrease -1.6 Increase 33 70.3 Increase 3.3 Decrease 54 67.0 Decrease -0.1 Decrease 52 67.1 Decrease -1.8 Decrease 41 68.9 Decrease -0.5 38 69.4
 Botswana Decrease 40 69.6 Increase 0.1 Decrease 36 69.5 Decrease -0.4 Decrease 35 69.9 Decrease -0.2 Decrease 34 71.1 Decrease -1.0 Increase 30 71.1 Increase 1.3 Decrease 36 69.8 Decrease -2.2 Increase 27 72 Increase 1.4 30 70.6
 Brunei Increase 61 66.6 Increase 1.5 Increase 63 65.1 Increase 0.9 Decrease 70 64.2 Decrease -5.6 Increase 35 69.8 Increase 2.5 Decrease 51 67.3 Decrease -1.6 Increase 39 68.9 Decrease -0.1 40 69.0 - - -
 Israel Increase 26 74.0 Increase 1.2 Increase 27 72.8 Increase 0.6 Increase 31 72.2 Increase 2.5 Decrease 36 69.7 Decrease -1.0 Decrease 35 70.7 Increase 0.2 Increase 33 70.5 Increase 2.1 Increase 44 68.4 Increase 1.5 51 66.9
 Colombia Increase 45 69.2 Increase 1.9 Decrease 49 67.3 Decrease -1.6 Decrease 42 68.9 Decrease -0.8 Decrease 37 69.7 Decrease -1.1 Decrease 33 70.8 Decrease -0.9 Increase 28 71.7 Increase 1.0 Increase 34 70.7 Increase 1.1 37 69.6
 Uruguay Decrease 47 69.1 Increase 0.5 Decrease 40 68.6 Decrease -0.6 Steady 38 69.2 Decrease -0.5 Increase 38 69.7 Increase 0.9 Increase 41 68.8 Increase 0.2 Decrease 43 68.6 Decrease -0.7 Decrease 38 69.3 Decrease -0.4 36 69.7
 Romania Increase 38 69.7 Increase 1.1 Decrease 42 68.6 Decrease -0.8 Increase 37 69.4 Decrease -0.3 Increase 39 69.7 Increase 4.1 Decrease 61 65.6 Decrease -1.0 Increase 57 66.6 Increase 1.1 Decrease 62 65.5 Increase 0.4 59 65.1
 Japan Steady 30 73.3 Increase 1.2 Steady 30 72.1 Decrease -0.2 Increase 30 72.3 Increase 2.7 Decrease 40 69.6 Decrease -3.5 Decrease 22 73.1 Decrease -0.2 Increase 20 73.3 Increase 0.9 Decrease 25 72.4 Increase 0.6 24 71.8
 Jamaica Decrease 49 68.5 Decrease -0.1 Increase 39 68.6 Decrease -0.5 Increase 40 69.1 Decrease -0.4 Increase 41 69.5 Increase 2.0 Steady 48 67.5 Decrease -0.2 Increase 48 67.7 Increase 1.0 Decrease 56 66.7 Decrease -0.1 52 66.8
 Kazakhstan Increase 39 69.6 Increase 4.2 Decrease 59 65.4 Decrease -3.7 Increase 41 69.1 Increase 0.1 Increase 42 69.0 Increase 5.4 Increase 68 63.6 Increase 0.3 Decrease 69 63.3 Decrease -0.4 Increase 67 63.7 Increase 0.7 68 63.0
 Peru Decrease 51 67.9 Increase 0.1 Decrease 45 67.8 Decrease -0.9 Steady 43 68.7 Decrease -0.2 Increase 43 68.9 Increase 1.5 Decrease 49 67.4 Decrease -0.3 Steady 47 67.7 Increase 0.3 Decrease 47 67.4 Decrease -0.8 44 68.2
 Bahrain Decrease 63 66.3 Decrease -0.1 Decrease 54 66.4 Decrease -1.3 Decrease 50 67.7 Decrease -0.8 Decrease 44 68.5 Decrease -5.8 Steady 18 74.3 Increase 0.9 Decrease 18 73.4 Decrease -1.7 Decrease 13 75.1 Decrease -0.4 12 75.5
 Poland Steady 46 69.1 Increase 1.3 Decrease 46 67.8 Decrease -0.7 Steady 45 68.5 Increase 0.2 Decrease 45 68.3 Decrease -1.0 Increase 39 69.3 Increase 0.7 Increase 42 68.6 Increase 1.6 Increase 50 67.0 Increase 1.0 57 66.0
 Kosovo Decrease 53 67.4 Increase 0.4 Increase 51 67.0 Increase 0.4 Decrease 56 66.6 Decrease -1.3 Increase 46 67.9 Increase 6.5 84 61.4 - - - - - - - - -
 Bulgaria Increase 36 70.2 Increase 1.2 Increase 37 69.0 Increase 0.7 Steady 47 68.3 Increase 0.4 Increase 47 67.9 Increase2.0 Decrease 60 65.9 Decrease -0.9 Increase 55 66.8 Increase1.1 Decrease 61 65.7 Increase0.7 60 65.0
 Cyprus Increase 37 70.1 Increase 2.0 Increase 44 68.1 Increase 0.3 Steady 48 67.8 Decrease -0.1 Decrease 48 67.9 Decrease -0.8 Increase 42 68.7 Increase 0.8 Increase 45 67.9 Increase 0.3 Decrease 46 67.6 Decrease -1.4 41 69.0
 Belgium Steady 48 68.9 Increase 1.6 Increase 48 67.3 Decrease -0.2 Decrease 52 67.5 Decrease -0.3 Decrease 49 67.8 Decrease -0.6 Decrease 44 68.4 Decrease -0.4 Decrease 40 68.8 Decrease -1.1 Increase 35 69.9 Increase 0.7 40 69.2
 Malta Decrease 42 69.5 Increase 0.9 Increase 41 68.6 Increase 0.1 Increase 46 68.5 Increase 0.8 Increase 50 67.7 Increase 1.0 Increase 55 66.7 Increase 0.2 Steady 58 66.5 Increase 0.1 Decrease 58 66.4 Decrease -1.1 47 67.5
 Rwanda Decrease 33 70.9 Decrease -0.2 Increase 32 71.1 Increase 2.0 Increase 39 69.1 Increase 1.5 Increase 51 67.6 Increase 4.5 Decrease 71 63.1 Decrease -1.7 Steady 65 64.8 Increase 0.1 Decrease 65 64.7 Increase 0.6 63 64.1
 Vanuatu Increase 98 60.7 Increase 4.3 Decrease 116 56.4 Decrease -13.1 Increase 36 69.5 Increase 2.1 Increase 52 67.4 Increase 6.6 Decrease 89 60.8 Decrease -0.3 Increase 84 61.1 Increase 1.6 Increase 93 59.5 Increase 2.9 109 56.6
 Jordan Decrease 66 66.0 Decrease -0.5 Increase 53 66.5 Increase 1.6 Decrease 62 64.9 Decrease -1.8 Decrease 53 66.7 Decrease -1.6 Decrease 46 68.3 Decrease -1.0 Increase 38 69.3 Increase 0.1 Decrease 39 69.2 Decrease -1.2 33 70.4
 Panama Decrease 55 67.2 Steady 0.0 Increase 50 67.2 Increase 0.2 Steady 54 67.0 Increase 0.7 Increase 54 66.3 Increase 1.5 Increase 66 64.8 Increase 0.7 Increase 68 64.1 Increase 0.7 Steady 71 63.4 Increase 0.9 71 62.5
 Thailand Steady 43 69.4 Increase 1.1 Increase 43 68.3 Increase 1.2 Increase 53 67.1 Increase 0.9 Increase 55 66.2 Increase 2.3 Increase 67 63.9 Increase 1.5 Decrease 75 62.4 Decrease -0.9 Decrease 72 63.3 Decrease -0.8 61 64.1
 Hungary Increase 62 66.4 Increase 1.4 Decrease 64 65.0 Decrease -1.7 Increase 55 66.7 Increase 0.9 Increase 56 65.8 Decrease -0.2 Decrease 58 66.0 Decrease -0.8 Decrease 54 66.8 Decrease -0.2 Decrease 51 67.0 Decrease -0.3 48 67.3
 Slovakia Increase 60 66.8 Increase 1.8 Decrease 65 65.0 Decrease -0.3 Decrease 59 65.3 Decrease -0.4 Decrease 57 65.7 Decrease -0.9 Decrease 56 66.6 Decrease -0.6 Increase 50 67.2 Increase 0.8 Decrease 57 66.4 Decrease -2.3 42 68.7
 Philippines Steady 70 64.5 Increase 0.7 Decrease 70 63.8 Decrease -1.2 Decrease 61 65.0 Decrease -0.6 Increase 58 65.6 Increase 2.5 Increase 70 63.1 Increase 0.9 Increase 76 62.2 Increase 2.1 Increase 89 60.1 Increase 1.9 97 58.2
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Decrease 59 66.8 Increase 1.0 Decrease 55 65.8 Decrease -1.9 Increase 49 67.7 Increase 2.5 Decrease 59 65.2 Decrease -3.6 Increase 40 68.8 Increase 0.8 Increase 44 68.0 Increase 1.0 Increase 52 67.0 Increase 0.3 54 66.7
 Turkey Decrease 71 64.4 Decrease -0.2 Decrease 68 64.6 Decrease -0.8 Increase 58 65.4 Increase 0.2 Increase 60 65.2 Increase 3.1 Decrease 79 62.1 Decrease -1.1 Decrease 70 63.2 Decrease -1.7 Increase 64 64.9 Increase 2.0 69 62.9
 Kuwait Increase 79 63.2 Increase 2.4 Decrease 90 60.8 Decrease -1.4 Decrease 81 62.2 Decrease -2.9 Increase 61 65.1 Increase 2.4 Steady 74 62.7 Increase 0.2 Increase 74 62.5 Increase 0.2 Decrease 76 62.3 Decrease -0.8 66 63.1
 Saint Lucia Decrease 50 68.2 Decrease -0.5 Increase 38 68.7 Increase 1.1 Increase 51 67.6 Increase 2.6 Decrease 62 65.0 Decrease -5.0 Decrease 38 70.0 Decrease -0.2 Decrease 35 70.2 Decrease -0.5 Decrease 33 70.7 Increase 0.3 32 70.4
 Costa Rica Decrease 68 65.8 Increase 0.5 Decrease 61 65.3 Decrease -0.3 Increase 57 65.6 Increase 0.6 Decrease 63 65.0 Decrease -2.4 Increase 50 67.4 Increase 0.2 Increase 51 67.2 Increase 0.3 Decrease 53 66.9 Decrease -0.1 49 67.0
 Saudi Arabia Increase 83 62.4 Increase 1.7 Increase 91 60.7 Increase 1.1 Decrease 98 59.6 Decrease -4.8 Increase 64 64.4 Increase 2.3 Decrease 78 62.1 Steady 0.0 Steady 77 62.1 Decrease -0.1 Increase 77 62.2 Increase 1.6 82 60.6
 Albania Decrease 57 66.9 Increase 0.4 Increase 52 66.5 Increase 2.0 Steady 65 64.5 Increase 0.1 Decrease 65 64.4 Decrease -1.5 Increase 59 65.9 Increase 0.2 Decrease 63 65.7 Decrease -1.2 Increase 54 66.9 Increase 1.7 58 65.2
 El Salvador Decrease 90 61.6 Decrease -0.2 Decrease 84 61.8 Decrease -1.4 Decrease 75 63.2 Decrease -0.9 Decrease 66 64.1 Decrease -1.0 Decrease 63 65.1 Decrease -0.6 Decrease 62 65.7 Decrease -0.5 Decrease 59 66.2 Decrease -0.5 53 66.7
 Dominica Decrease 97 60.8 Decrease -2.8 Decrease 72 63.6 Decrease -0.9 Increase 66 64.5 Increase 0.8 Decrease 67 63.7 Decrease -3.3 Increase 53 67.0 Increase 0.9 Increase 61 66.1 Increase 0.9 Increase 63 65.2 Increase 1.3 64 63.9
 Azerbaijan Increase 44 69.3 Increase 3.9 Increase 60 65.4 Increase 1.1 Increase 67 64.3 Increase 0.7 Increase 68 63.6 Increase 3.4 Decrease 91 60.2 Decrease -0.8 Decrease 85 61.0 Decrease -0.3 Increase 81 61.3 Increase 1.6 88 59.7 -
 Spain Decrease 58 66.9 Increase 1.2 Increase 57 65.7 Increase 0.6 Increase 60 65.1 Increase 1.5 Decrease 69 63.6 Decrease -4.9 Increase 43 68.5 Increase 0.9 Steady 49 67.6 Increase 0.4 Decrease 49 67.2 Decrease -0.8 46 68.0 |
 Mexico Decrease 67 66.0 Increase 1.3 Decrease 66 64.7 Decrease -0.1 Increase 63 64.8 Increase 1.2 Decrease 70 63.6 Decrease -1.6 Decrease 62 65.2 Decrease -1.2 Decrease 59 66.4 Decrease -0.4 Decrease 55 66.8 Decrease -0.2 50 67.0 -
 Fiji Increase 77 63.4 Increase 1.2 Increase 81 62.2 Increase 0.2 Decrease 84 62.0 Decrease -1.4 Increase 71 63.4 Increase 4.6 Decrease 107 58.8 Decrease -0.2 Increase 98 59.0 Increase 0.3 Increase 99 58.7 Increase 1.5 105 57.2 -
 France Increase 64 66.0 Increase 2.2 Steady 71 63.8 Decrease -0.1 Increase 71 63.9 Increase 0.6 Increase 72 63.3 Increase 1.0 Decrease 75 62.3 Decrease -0.2 Decrease 73 62.5 Decrease -1.0 Decrease 70 63.5 Decrease -0.6 62 64.1 -
 Tonga Increase 107 58.8 Increase 1.1 Decrease 108 57.7 Decrease -5.4 Decrease 76 63.1 Increase 0.1 Increase 73 63.0 Increase 3.4 Steady 95 59.6 Increase 0.3 Increase 95 59.3 Increase 1.1 Increase 104 58.2 Increase 2.2 112 56.0 -
 Guatemala Increase 73 64.0 Increase 1.4 Decrease 77 62.6 Decrease -0.8 Increase 73 63.4 Increase 0.4 Increase 74 63.0 Increase 1.2 Increase 82 61.8 Increase 1.4 Decrease 87 60.4 Decrease -0.8 Increase 83 61.2 Increase 1.2 85 60.0 -
 Ivory Coast Decrease 101 59.7 Decrease -2.7 Increase 78 62.4 Increase 0.4 Decrease 85 62.0 Decrease -1.0 Increase 75 63.0 Increase 3.0 Increase 92 60.0 Increase 1.5 Increase 103 58.5 Increase 0.8 Increase 107 57.7 Increase 3.6 126 54.1 -
 Dominican Republic Decrease 95 60.9 Decrease -0.1 Steady 89 61.0 Decrease -0.6 Decrease 89 61.6 Decrease -1.3 Increase 76 62.9 Increase 1.9 Decrease 88 61.0 Steady 0.0 Decrease 86 61.0 Decrease -0.3 Increase 80 61.3 Increase 1.6 87 59.7 -
 Portugal Increase 56 67.0 Increase 1.7 Increase 62 65.3 Increase 1.9 Increase 72 63.4 Increase 0.8 Decrease 77 62.6 Decrease -2.5 Steady 64 65.1 Decrease -0.2 Increase 64 65.3 Increase 1.8 Decrease 69 63.5 Increase 0.4 67 63.1 -
 Namibia Increase 96 60.9 Increase 2.2 Increase 99 58.7 Increase 0.2 Decrease 103 58.5 Decrease -4.0 Increase 78 62.5 Increase 0.6 Increase 81 61.9 Increase 2.3 Increase 93 59.6 Increase 0.2 Decrease 94 59.4 Decrease -0.9 84 60.3 -
 Italy Increase 74 63.8 Increase 1.6 Decrease 80 62.2 Decrease -0.3 Steady 79 62.5 Steady 0.0 Increase 79 62.5 Increase 1.3 Decrease 86 61.2 Decrease -0.5 Increase 80 61.7 Increase 0.8 Decrease 86 60.9 Increase 0.3 83 60.6 -
 Paraguay Increase 80 63.0 Increase 1.2 Decrease 85 61.8 Decrease -0.3 Decrease 82 62.1 Decrease -0.3 Increase 80 62.4 Increase 0.9 Steady 83 61.5 Increase 0.4 Decrease 83 61.1 Decrease -0.9 Increase 78 62.0 Increase 0.9 80 61.1 -
 South Africa Decrease 106 58.8 Increase 0.5 Decrease 102 58.3 Decrease -4.7 Increase 77 63.0 Increase 0.7 Decrease 81 62.3 Increase 0.4 Decrease 80 61.9 Decrease -0.7 Increase 72 62.6 Increase 0.1 Decrease 75 62.5 Increase 0.7 74 61.8 -
 Oman Increase 75 63.6 Increase 2.6 Increase 88 61.0 Steady 0.0 Decrease 93 61.0 Decrease -1.1 Decrease 82 62.1 Decrease -5.0 Increase 52 67.1 Increase 0.4 Decrease 56 66.7 Decrease -0.7 Decrease 48 67.4 Decrease -0.7 45 68.1 -
 Montenegro Increase 91 61.5 Increase 1.0 Decrease 92 60.5 Decrease -3.8 Increase 68 64.3 Increase 2.3 Decrease 83 62.0 Decrease -2.9 Increase 65 64.9 Increase 0.2 Increase 66 64.7 Increase 1.1 Increase 68 63.6 Increase 1.0 70 62.6 -
 Indonesia Increase 54 67.2 Increase 1.4 Increase 56 65.8 Increase 1.6 Increase 69 64.2 Increase 2.3 Increase 84 61.9 Increase 2.5 Increase 99 59.4 Increase 1.3 Decrease 105 58.1 Decrease -0.4 Increase 100 58.5 Increase 1.6 108 56.9 -
 Seychelles Increase 72 64.3 Increase 2.9 Increase 87 61.4 Decrease -0.2 Decrease 88 61.6 Decrease -0.2 Decrease 85 61.8 Decrease -0.4 Increase 76 62.2 Increase 4.7 Increase 114 57.5 Increase 1.3 Increase 117 56.2 Increase 1.3 124 54.9 -
 Morocco Decrease 78 63.3 Increase 0.4 Increase 75 62.9 Increase 1.0 Steady 86 61.9 Increase 0.4 Decrease 86 61.5 Increase 0.2 Increase 85 61.3 Increase 1.2 Increase 89 60.1 Increase 1.8 Decrease 103 58.3 Decrease -1.3 90 59.6 -
 Trinidad and Tobago Increase 109 58.3 Increase 1.3 Steady 112 57.0 Decrease -0.7 Decrease 112 57.7 Decrease -3.5 Decrease 87 61.2 Decrease -1.7 Decrease 73 62.9 Decrease -1.2 Increase 67 64.1 Increase 1.4 Decrease 73 62.7 Increase 0.4 72 62.3 -
 Eswatini Increase 131 55.3 Increase 0.6 Decrease 132 54.7 Decrease -1.2 Decrease 123 55.9 Decrease -5.2 Increase 88 61.1 Increase 1.4 Decrease 94 59.7 Decrease -0.2 Decrease 91 59.9 Decrease -1.3 Increase 82 61.2 Increase 4.0 104 57.2 -
 Kyrgyzstan Decrease 81 62.9 Increase 0.6 Decrease 79 62.3 Decrease -0.5 Increase 78 62.8 Increase 1.7 Increase 89 61.1 Increase 1.5 Decrease 96 59.6 Decrease -1.7 Increase 82 61.3 Increase 0.2 Increase 85 61.1 Increase 1.5 89 59.6 -
 Bahamas Increase 69 64.5 Increase 1.6 Decrease 76 62.9 Decrease -0.4 Increase 74 63.3 Increase 2.2 Decrease 90 61.1 Decrease -9.8 Increase 31 70.9 Increase 2.2 Decrease 41 68.7 Decrease -1.1 Decrease 36 69.8 Decrease -0.3 35 70.1 -
 Uganda Decrease 102 59.5 Decrease -0.2 Decrease 95 59.7 Decrease -2.3 Increase 83 62.0 Increase 1.1 Increase 91 60.9 Increase 1.6 Decrease 102 59.3 Decrease -0.4 Decrease 92 59.7 Decrease -0.2 Decrease 91 59.9 Decrease -1.2 79 61.1 -
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Increase 82 62.6 Increase 0.7 Increase 83 61.9 Increase 0.5 Increase 91 61.4 Increase 1.2 Increase 92 60.2 Increase 1.6 Decrease 108 58.6 Decrease -0.4 Increase 97 59.0 Increase 0.6 Increase 101 58.4 Increase 1.1 103 57.3 -
 Burkina Faso Decrease 117 56.7 Decrease -2.7 Decrease 96 59.4 Decrease -0.6 Decrease 95 60.0 Increase 0.4 Increase 93 59.6 Increase 0.5 Decrease 104 59.1 Increase 0.5 Decrease 102 58.6 Decrease -0.3 Decrease 98 58.9 Decrease -1.0 86 59.9 -
 Cambodia Decrease 113 57.3 Decrease -0.5 Decrease 105 57.8 Decrease -0.9 Decrease 101 58.7 Decrease -0.8 Increase 94 59.5 Increase 1.6 Decrease 112 57.9 Increase 0.4 Decrease 110 57.5 Increase 0.1 Decrease 108 57.4 Decrease -1.1 95 58.5 -
 Croatia Increase 84 62.2 Increase 0.8 Increase 86 61.4 Increase 0.4 Increase 92 61.0 Increase 1.6 Increase 95 59.4 Increase 0.3 Decrease 103 59.1 Decrease -2.4 Increase 81 61.5 Increase 1.1 Decrease 87 60.4 Decrease -0.9 78 61.3 -
 Benin Decrease 133 55.2 Decrease -0.1 Decrease 127 55.3 Decrease -1.4 Decrease 120 56.7 Decrease -2.5 Increase 96 59.2 Decrease -0.1 Decrease 101 59.3 Increase 0.5 Increase 99 58.8 Increase 1.7 Decrease 113 57.1 Decrease -0.5 101 57.6 -
 Slovenia Increase 52 67.8 Increase 2.3 Increase 58 65.5 Increase 0.7 Increase 64 64.8 Increase 5.6 Decrease 97 59.2 Decrease -1.4 Decrease 90 60.6 Increase 0.3 Decrease 88 60.3 Decrease -2.4 Increase 74 62.7 Increase 1.0 76 61.7 -
 Nicaragua Decrease 115 57.2 Decrease -0.5 Decrease 107 57.7 Decrease -1.2 Decrease 100 58.9 Decrease -0.3 Increase 98 59.2 Increase 0.6 Decrease 109 58.6 Increase 1.0 Decrease 108 57.6 Decrease -0.8 Increase 102 58.4 Increase 1.8 110 56.6 -
 Serbia Increase 65 66.0 Increase 2.1 Increase 69 63.9 Increase 1.4 Increase 80 62.5 Increase 3.6 Decrease 99 58.9 Decrease -3.2 Increase 77 62.1 Increase 2.1 Increase 90 60.0 Increase 0.6 Decrease 95 59.4 Increase 0.8 94 58.6 -
 Honduras Steady 93 61.1 Increase 0.9 Increase 93 60.2 Decrease -0.4 Increase 94 60.6 Increase 1.8 Increase 100 58.8