Illinois House of Representatives
The Illinois House of Representatives is the lower house of the Illinois General Assembly. The body was created by the first Illinois Constitution adopted in 1818. The House under the current constitution as amended in 1980 consists of 118 representatives elected from individual legislative districts for two-year terms with no limits; redistricted every 10 years, based on the 2010 U.S. census each representative represents approximately 108,734 people.
Illinois House of Representatives
|Illinois General Assembly|
New session started
|January 13, 2021|
Length of term
|Authority||Article IV, Illinois Constitution|
|Salary||$67,836/year + per diem|
|November 3, 2020|
|November 8, 2022|
|House of Representatives Chamber|
Illinois State Capitol
|Illinois House of Representatives|
The house has the power to pass bills and impeach Illinois officeholders. Lawmakers must be at least 21 years of age and a resident of the district in which they serve for at least two years.
President Abraham Lincoln began his career in politics in the Illinois House of Representatives.
The Illinois General Assembly was created by the first Illinois Constitution adopted in 1818. The candidates for office split into political parties in the 1830s, initially as the Democratic and Whig parties, until the Whig candidates reorganized as Republicans in the 1850s.
Abraham Lincoln began his political career in the Illinois House of Representatives as a member of the Whig party in 1834. He served there until 1842. Although Republicans held the majority of seats in the Illinois House after 1860, in the next election it returned to the Democrats. The Democratic Party-led legislature worked to frame a new state constitution that was ultimately rejected by voters After the 1862 election, the Democratic-led Illinois House of Representatives passed resolutions denouncing the federal government's conduct of the war and urging an immediate armistice and peace convention, leading the Republican governor to suspend the legislature for the first time in the state's history. In 1864, Republicans swept the state legislature and at the time of Lincoln's assassination at Ford's Theater, Illinois stood as a solidly Republican state.
Cutback Amendment of 1980Edit
From 1870 to 1980, Illinois's lower house had several unique features:
- The House comprised 177 members. The state was divided into 59 legislative districts, each of which elected three members.
- Elections were conducted using cumulative voting; each individual voter was given three votes to cast for House seats, and they could distribute them to three candidates (one vote each), one candidate (receiving three votes—this was called a bullet vote) or two candidates (each receiving 1½ votes).
- Though not constitutionally mandated, the two parties had an informal agreement that they would only run two candidates per district. Thus, in most districts, only four candidates were running for three seats. This not only all but guaranteed that the district's minority party would win a seat (particularly outside Chicago), but usually assured that each party would have significant representation—a minimum of one-third of the seats (59 out of 177)—in the House.
The Cutback Amendment was proposed to abolish this system. Since its passage in 1980, representatives have been elected from 118 single-member districts formed by dividing the 59 Senate districts in half, a method known as nesting. Each senator is "associated" with two representatives.
Since the adoption of the Cutback Amendment, there have been proposals by some major political figures in Illinois to bring back multi-member districts. A task force led by former governor Jim Edgar and former federal judge Abner Mikva issued a report in 2001 calling for the revival of cumulative voting, in part because it appears that such a system increases the representation of racial minorities in elected office. The Chicago Tribune editorialized in 1995 that the multi-member districts elected with cumulative voting produced better legislators. Others have argued that the now-abandoned system provided for greater stability in the lower house.
The Democratic Party won a majority of House seats in 1982. Except for a brief two-year period of Republican control from 1995 to 1997, the Democrats have held the majority since then.
The first two African-American legislators in Illinois were John W. E. Thomas, first elected in 1876, and George French Ecton, elected in 1886. In 1922, Lottie Holman O'Neill became the first woman elected to the Illinois House of Representatives. In 1958, Floy Clements became the first African American woman to serve as state Representative. In 1982, Joseph Berrios became the first Hispanic American state representative. Theresa Mah became the first Asian American to serve in the Illinois House when she was sworn into office January 10, 2017.
The Illinois House of Representatives meets at the Illinois State Capitol in Springfield, Illinois. It is required to convene on the second Wednesday of January each year. Along with the Illinois Senate and governor, it is vested with the power to make laws, come up with a state budget, act on federal constitutional amendments, and propose constitutional amendments to the state constitution. The Illinois House of Representatives also holds the power to impeach executive and judicial officials.
A person must be a U.S. citizen and two-year resident of an electoral district of at least 21 years of age to serve in the Illinois House of Representatives. Members of the House cannot hold other public offices or receive appointments by the governor while in office.
Composition of the HouseEdit
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
|End of previous legislature||67||51||118||0|
|January 13, 2021||73||45||118||0|
|February 18, 2021||72||117||1|
|February 21, 2021||73||118||0|
|February 24, 2021||72||117||1|
|Latest voting share||61.54%||38.46%|
The current Speaker of the Illinois House of Representatives is Emanuel Chris Welch (D-Hillside), who represents the 7th district. The Democratic Party of Illinois currently holds a majority of seats in the House. Under the Constitution of Illinois, the office of minority leader is recognized for the purpose of making certain appointments. Jim Durkin (R-Western Springs), representing the 82nd district, currently holds the post. On January 25, 2021, Speaker Welch announced the Democratic leadership team for the 102nd General Assembly. Minority Leader Durkin did likewise.
- Clerk of the House: John W. Hollman
- Chief Doorkeeper: Lee A. Crawford
- Parliamentarian: Justin Cox
- Assistant Clerk of the House: Bradley S. Bolin
|1||Aaron Ortiz||Democratic||January 9, 2019||Chicago|
|2||Theresa Mah||Democratic||January 11, 2017||Chicago|
|3||Eva-Dina Delgado Ɨ||Democratic||November 15, 2019||Chicago|
|4||Delia Ramirez ƗƗ||Democratic||December 21, 2018||Chicago|
|5||Lamont Robinson ƗƗ||Democratic||January 2, 2019||Chicago|
|6||Sonya Harper Ɨ||Democratic||October 20, 2015||Chicago|
|7||Emanuel Chris Welch||Democratic||January 9, 2013||Hillside|
|8||La Shawn Ford||Democratic||January 10, 2007||Chicago|
|9||Lakesia Collins Ɨ||Democratic||July 24, 2020||Chicago|
|10||Jawaharial Williams Ɨ||Democratic||May 1, 2019||Chicago|
|11||Ann Williams||Democratic||January 12, 2011||Chicago|
|12||Margaret Croke ƗƗ||Democratic||January 2, 2021||Chicago|
|13||Greg Harris ƗƗ||Democratic||December 1, 2006||Chicago|
|14||Kelly Cassidy Ɨ||Democratic||April 12, 2011||Chicago|
|15||John C. D'Amico ƗƗ||Democratic||November 6, 2004||Chicago|
|16||Denyse Wang Stoneback||Democratic||January 13, 2021||Chicago|
|17||Jennifer Gong-Gershowitz ƗƗ||Democratic||December 21, 2018||Glenview|
|18||Robyn Gabel Ɨ||Democratic||April 19, 2010||Evanston|
|19||Lindsey LaPointe Ɨ||Democratic||July 24, 2019||Chicago|
|20||Bradley Stephens Ɨ||Republican||June 29, 2019||Rosemont|
|21||Edgar González Jr. Ɨ||Democratic||January 10, 2020||Chicago|
|22||Angelica Guerrero-Cuellar Ɨ||Democratic||February 25, 2021||Chicago|
|23||Michael J. Zalewski ƗƗ||Democratic||December 6, 2008||Riverside|
|24||Elizabeth Hernandez||Democratic||January 10, 2007||Cicero|
|25||Curtis Tarver||Democratic||January 9, 2019||Chicago|
|26||Kam Buckner Ɨ||Democratic||January 18, 2019||Chicago|
|27||Justin Slaughter Ɨ||Democratic||January 5, 2017||Chicago|
|28||Robert Rita||Democratic||January 8, 2003||Blue Island|
|29||Thaddeus Jones||Democratic||January 12, 2011||Calumet City|
|30||Will Davis||Democratic||January 8, 2003||Homewood|
|31||Mary E. Flowers||Democratic||January 8, 1985||Chicago|
|32||Cyril Nichols Ɨ||Democratic||April 8, 2021||Chicago|
|33||Marcus C. Evans Jr. Ɨ||Democratic||April 13, 2012||Chicago|
|34||Nicholas Smith Ɨ||Democratic||February 4, 2018||Chicago|
|35||Frances Ann Hurley||Democratic||January 9, 2013||Chicago|
|36||Kelly M. Burke||Democratic||January 12, 2011||Evergreen Park|
|37||Tim Ozinga||Republican||January 13, 2021||Mokena|
|38||Debbie Meyers-Martin||Democratic||January 9, 2019||Olympia Fields|
|39||Will Guzzardi||Democratic||January 14, 2015||Chicago|
|40||Jaime Andrade Jr. Ɨ||Democratic||August 12, 2013||Chicago|
|41||Janet Yang Rohr||Democratic||January 13, 2021||Naperville|
|42||Amy Grant||Republican||January 9, 2019||Wheaton|
|43||Anna Moeller Ɨ||Democratic||March 30, 2014||Elgin|
|44||Fred Crespo||Democratic||January 10, 2007||Hoffman Estates|
|45||Seth Lewis||Republican||January 13, 2021||Bartlett|
|46||Deb Conroy||Democratic||January 9, 2013||Villa Park|
|47||Deanne Mazzochi Ɨ||Republican||July 14, 2018||Elmhurst|
|48||Terra Costa Howard||Democratic||January 9, 2019||Glen Ellyn|
|49||Maura Hirschauer||Democratic||January 13, 2021||Batavia|
|50||Keith R. Wheeler||Republican||January 14, 2015||Oswego|
|51||Chris Bos||Republican||January 13, 2021||Lake Zurich|
|52||Martin McLaughlin||Republican||January 13, 2021||Barrington Hills|
|53||Mark L. Walker||Democratic||January 9, 2019||Arlington Heights|
|54||Tom Morrison||Republican||January 12, 2011||Palatine|
|55||Marty Moylan||Democratic||January 9, 2013||Des Plaines|
|56||Michelle Mussman||Democratic||January 12, 2011||Schaumburg|
|57||Jonathan Carroll Ɨ||Democratic||October 3, 2017||Northbrook|
|58||Bob Morgan||Democratic||January 9, 2019||Deerfield|
|59||Daniel Didech||Democratic||January 9, 2019||Buffalo Grove|
|60||Rita Mayfield Ɨ||Democratic||July 6, 2010||Waukegan|
|61||Joyce Mason||Democratic||January 9, 2019||Gurnee|
|62||Sam Yingling||Democratic||January 9, 2013||Grayslake|
|63||Steve Reick||Republican||January 11, 2017||Woodstock|
|64||Tom Weber||Republican||January 9, 2019||Lake Villa|
|65||Dan Ugaste||Republican||January 9, 2019||Geneva|
|66||Suzanne Ness||Democratic||January 13, 2021||Crystal Lake|
|67||Maurice West||Democratic||January 9, 2019||Rockford|
|68||David Vella||Democratic||January 13, 2021||Rockford|
|69||Joe Sosnowski||Republican||January 12, 2011||Rockford|
|70||Jeff Keicher Ɨ||Republican||July 5, 2018||DeKalb|
|71||Tony McCombie||Republican||January 11, 2017||Savanna|
|72||Michael Halpin||Democratic||January 11, 2017||Milan|
|73||Ryan Spain||Republican||January 11, 2017||Peoria|
|74||Daniel Swanson||Republican||January 11, 2017||Woodhull|
|75||David Welter Ɨ||Republican||July 9, 2016||Morris|
|76||Lance Yednock||Democratic||January 9, 2019||Ottawa|
|77||Kathleen Willis||Democratic||January 9, 2013||Addison|
|78||Camille Lilly Ɨ||Democratic||April 27, 2010||Chicago|
|79||Jackie Haas ƗƗ||Republican||December 8, 2020||Bourbonnais|
|80||Anthony DeLuca Ɨ||Democratic||March 6, 2009||Chicago Heights|
|81||Anne Stava-Murray||Democratic||January 9, 2019||Downers Grove|
|82||Jim Durkin Ɨ||Republican||January 6, 2006||Western Springs|
|83||Barbara Hernandez Ɨ||Democratic||March 7, 2019||Aurora|
|84||Stephanie Kifowit||Democratic||January 9, 2013||Oswego|
|85||Dagmara Avelar||Democratic||January 13, 2021||Bolingbrook|
|86||Lawrence M. Walsh Jr. Ɨ||Democratic||April 30, 2012||Elwood|
|87||Tim Butler Ɨ||Republican||March 3, 2015||Springfield|
|88||Keith P. Sommer||Republican||January 13, 1999||Morton|
|89||Andrew Chesney ƗƗ||Republican||December 6, 2018||Freeport|
|90||Tom Demmer||Republican||January 9, 2013||Dixon|
|91||Mark Luft||Republican||January 13, 2021||Pekin|
|92||Jehan Gordon-Booth||Democratic||January 14, 2009||Peoria|
|93||Norine Hammond Ɨ||Republican||December 14, 2010||Macomb|
|94||Randy Frese||Republican||January 14, 2015||Paloma|
|95||Avery Bourne Ɨ||Republican||February 14, 2015||Pawnee|
|96||Sue Scherer||Democratic||January 9, 2013||Decatur|
|97||Mark Batinick||Republican||January 14, 2015||Plainfield|
|98||Natalie Manley||Democratic||January 9, 2013||Joliet|
|99||Mike Murphy||Republican||January 9, 2019||Springfield|
|100||C. D. Davidsmeyer Ɨ||Republican||December 12, 2012||Jacksonville|
|101||Dan Caulkins||Republican||January 9, 2019||Decatur|
|102||Brad Halbrook||Republican||January 11, 2017||Shelbyville|
|103||Carol Ammons||Democratic||January 14, 2015||Urbana|
|104||Michael Marron Ɨ||Republican||September 7, 2018||Fithian|
|105||Dan Brady||Republican||January 10, 2001||Bloomington|
|106||Thomas M. Bennett||Republican||January 14, 2015||Gibson City|
|107||Blaine Wilhour||Republican||January 9, 2019||Beecher City|
|108||Charles Meier||Republican||January 9, 2013||Okawville|
|109||Adam Niemerg||Republican||January 13, 2021||Dieterich|
|110||Chris Miller||Republican||January 9, 2019||Charleston|
|111||Amy Elik||Republican||January 13, 2021||Fosterburg|
|112||Katie Stuart||Democratic||January 11, 2017||Edwardsville|
|113||Jay Hoffman||Democratic||January 9, 2013||Swansea|
|114||LaToya Greenwood||Democratic||January 11, 2017||East St. Louis|
|115||Paul Jacobs||Republican||January 13, 2021||Pomona|
|116||David Friess||Republican||January 13, 2021||Red Bud|
|117||Dave Severin||Republican||January 11, 2017||Benton|
|118||Patrick Windhorst||Republican||January 9, 2019||Metropolis|
- Ɨ Legislator was appointed to the Illinois House of Representatives during session.
- ƗƗ Legislator was appointed to the Illinois House of Representatives after being elected, but prior to inauguration day of the General Assembly to which they were elected.
Past composition of the House of RepresentativesEdit
- White Jr., Ronald C. (2009). A. Lincoln: A Biography. Random House, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4000-6499-1, p. 59.
- VandeCreek, Drew E. Politics in Illinois and the Union During the Civil War Archived June 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (accessed May 28, 2013)
- "FairVote - Illinois' Drive to Revive Cumulative Voting". Archive.fairvote.org. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- "FairVote - Black Representation Under Cumulative Voting in Illinois". Archive.fairvote.org. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- "Cumulative Voting - Illinois | The New Rules Project". Newrules.org. January 12, 2005. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- "HeinOnline". HeinOnline. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Joens, David A. From Slave to State Legislator: John WE Thomas, Illinois' First African American Lawmaker. SIU Press, 2012.
- "Illinois Women in Congress and General Assembly" (PDF). Springfield, Illinois: Illinois General Assembly Legislative Research Unit. February 11, 2016. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Bone, Jan, ed. (June 1974). "Commission on the Status of Women. Report and Recommendations to the Governor and the General Assembly" (PDF). Springfield, Illinois: Illinois Commission on the Status of Women. p. 26. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Fremon, David K. (December 1991). "How first Hispanic congressional district remaps Chicago politics". Illinois Issues. Springfield, Illinois: Sangamon State University. pp. 22–24. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Miller, Rich (April 29, 2016). "How the South Side elected the state's first Asian-American lawmaker". Crain's Chicago Business. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
- Constitution of the State of Illinois, Article IV, The Legislature (accessed May 28, 2013)
- Democrat and former Speaker Michael Madigan (District 22) resigned.
- Democrat Edward Guerra Kodatt selected to succeed Madigan. 
- Democrat Edward Guerra Kodatt (District 22) resigned. 
- Nardulli, Jessica (January 25, 2021). "New Leadership in the Illinois House" (PDF). ICCTA Government Relations and Public Policy Report. Illinois Community College Trustees Association. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
- Miller, Rich (January 25, 2021). "Durkin's new leadership team". Capitol Fax. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- Barlow, Sarah E. (ed.). "Biographies of New House Members" (PDF). First Reading. pp. 2–7. Retrieved January 5, 2020.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Illinois House of Representatives.|
- Illinois General Assembly - House official government website
- Illinois House Republicans official party website
- Illinois House Democrats official party website
- Legislature of Illinois at Project Vote Smart
- Illinois campaign financing at FollowTheMoney.org
- Illinois House of Representatives at Ballotpedia